Global Climate Change


From: Trenberth K. E., 2001: Stronger Evidence of Human Influence on Climate: The 2001 IPCC Assessment, Environment, 43, 4, pp. 8-19. (cover story). ( This article was published in Environment, May 2001, Volume 43, Number 4, pages 8-19. ©Heldref Publications, 2001. Posted with permission.)


Climate System

Description of the various components of global climate change. - From 1995 IPCC.


Earth's radiation

Description of the radiation budget. - From 1995 IPCC.


Modeling the climate system

Components of the climate system and the interactions among them, including the human component. All these components have to be modeled as a coupled system that includes the oceans, atmosphere, land, cryosphere and biosphere. GCM, General Circulation Model. - From Karl and Trenberth, 2003.


Global temperature versus carbon dioxide

Global temperature and its relationship with carbon dioxide for the years 1860-2009. - Updated from Karl and Trenberth, 2003.


Relevant Publications:

  • Trenberth, K. E., B. Moore, T. R. Karl, and C. Nobre, 2006: Monitoring and prediction of the Earth's climate: A future perspective. J. Climate, (CLIVAR special issue), 19, 5001-5008.
  • Doherty, S. J., S. Bojinski, A. Henderson-Sellers, K. Noone, D. Goodrich, N. L. Bindoff, J. A. Church, K. A. Hibbard, T. R. Karl, L. Kajfez-Bogataj, A. H. Lynch, D. E. Parker, I. C. Prentice, V. Ramaswamy, R. W. Saunders, M. Stafford Smith, K. Steffen, T. F. Stocker, P. W. Thorne, K. E. Trenberth, M. M. Verstraete, and F. W. Zwiers, 2009: Lessons learned from IPCC AR4: Scientific developments needed to understand, predict and respond to climate change. Bull Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 497-513.
  • Anthes, R. A., R. W. Correll, G. Holland, J. W. Hurrell, M. MacCracken, and K. E. Trenberth, 2006: Hurricanes and Global Warming - Potential Linkages and Consequences. BAMS: Vol. 87, pp. 623-628.
  • Dai, A., T. R. Karl, B. Sun, K. E. Trenberth, 2006: Recent trends in cloudiness over the United States: A tale of monitoring inadequacies. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 87, 597-606.
  • Trenberth, K. E., and D. J. Shea, 2006: Atlantic hurricanes and natural variability in 2005. Geophys. Res. Lett., Submitted.
  • Trenberth, K. E., 2005: Uncertainty in hurricanes and global warming. Science, 308, 1753-1754.
  • Trenberth, K. E., 2005: Climate: A warming world. Geotimes. December 2005, 24-25.
  • Trenberth, K. E., J. Fasullo, and L. Smith, 2005: Trends and variability in column-integrated water vapor. Clim. Dyn., 24, 741-758.
  • Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth and T. Qian, 2004: A global data set of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. J. Hydrometeor., 5, 1117-1130.
  • Trenberth, K. E., 2004: Rural land-use change and climate. Nature, 427, 213-214.
  • Trenberth, K., J. Overpeck and S. Solomon, 2004: Exploring drought and its implications for the future. Eos, 85, No. 3, 20 Jan. 2004, 27.
  • Karl, T. R., and K. E. Trenberth, 2003: Modern global climate change. Science, 302, 1719-1723.
  • Mann, M. E., C. Ammann, R. S. Bradley, K. Briffa, T. J. Crowley, M. Hughes, P. D. Jones, T. Osborn. M. Oppenheimer, J. Overpeck, S. Rutherford, K. E. Trenberth, T. M. L. Wigley, 2003: On past temperatures and anomalous late 20th Century warmth. Eos, 84, No. 27, 8 July 2003, 256-257.
  • Mann, M. E., C. Ammann, R. S. Bradley, K. Briffa, T. J. Crowley, M. Hughes, P. D. Jones, T. Osborn. M. Oppenheimer, J. Overpeck, S. Rutherford, K. E. Trenberth, T. M. L. Wigley, 2003: Response to comment "On past temperatures and anomalous late 20th Century warmth." Eos, 84, No. 44, 4 Nov 2003, 473,476.
  • Trenberth, K. E., A. Dai, R. M. Rasmussen and D. B. Parsons, 2003: The changing character of precipitation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 1205-1217.
  • Trenberth, K. E., and B. L. Otto-Bliesner, 2003: Toward integrated reconstructions of past climates. Science, 300, 589-591.
  • Trenberth, K. E. 2002: An uphill battle? Denver post, June 30th.
  • Trenberth, K. E., T. R. Karl and T. W. Spence, 2002: The need for a systems approach to climate observations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1593-1602.
  • Trenberth,K.E. 2001: The IPCC Assessment of global warming 2001, THE FORUM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and FINANCE (FAILSAFE) electronic journal, spring (March) issue, pp.8-26.
  • Trenberth,K.E. 2001: Global warming is happening Proceedings of American Association of Petroleum Geologists conference, June 3-6, 2001, Denver, CO.
  • Trenberth K. E., 2001: Stronger Evidence of Human Influence on Climate: The 2001 IPCC Assessment, Environment, 43, 4, pp. 8--19. ( This article was published in Environment, May 2001, Volume 43, Number 4, pages 8-19. ¬©Heldref Publications, 2001. Posted with permission.)
  • Trenberth K. E., 2001: How should precipitation change as climate changes: Prospects for increases in extremes The Climate Report. Maryam Golnaraghi (Ed.), Climate Risk Solutions, Inc. 2, 1, pp. 11--13.
  • Dai, A., T.M.L. Wigley, G.A. Meehl, and W.M. Washington, 2001: Effects of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 on global climate in the next two centuries. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4511-4514.
  • Dai, A., G.A. Meehl, W.M. Washington, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2001: Climate changes in the 21st century over the Asia-Pacific region simulated by the NCAR CSM and PCM. Advances in Atmos. Sci., 18, 639--658.
  • Dai, A., G.A. Meehl, W.M. Washington, T.M.L. Wigley, 2001: Ensemble simulations of 21st century climate changes: Business as usual vs. CO2 stabilization. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 2377--2388.
  • Liu, P., W.M. Washington, G.A. Meehl, G. Wu, and G.L. Potter, 2001: Historical and future trends of the Sahara Desert. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2683--2686.
  • Cubasch, U., G. A. Meehl, G. J. Boer, R. J. Stouffer, M. Dix, A. Noda, C. A. Senior, S. Raper and K. S. Yap, 2001: Projections of future climate change. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J. T., Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, C. I. Johnson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, 525--582.
  • Carter, L.M., E. Shea, M. Hamnett, C. Anderson, G. Dolcemascolo, C. Guard, M. Taylor, T. Barnston, Y. He, M. Larsen, L. Loope, S. Malone, and G.A. Meehl, 2001: Potential consequences of climate variability and change for the US-affiliated islands of the Pacific and Caribbean. Chapter 11 in U.S. National Assessment, Climate Change and Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, Cambridge University Press, 315--349.
  • Washington, W.M., J.W. Weatherly, G.A. Meehl, A.J. Semtner Jr., T.W. Bettge, A.P. Craig, W.G. Strand Jr., J.M. Arblaster, V.B. Wayland, R. James, Y. Zhang, 2000: Parallel climate model (PCM) control and transient simulations. Clim. Dyn., 16, 755--774.
  • Meehl, G.A., W.M. Washington, J.M. Arblaster, T.W. Bettge, and W.G. Strand Jr., 2000: Anthropogenic forcing and decadal climate variability in sensitivity experiments of 20th and 21st century climate. J. Climate, 13, 3728--3744.
  • Meehl, G.A., W.D. Collins, B. Boville, J.T. Kiehl, T.M.L Wigley, and J.M. Arblaster, 2000: Response of the NCAR Climate System Model to increased CO2 and the role of physical processes. J. Climate, 13, 1879--1898.
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, D.J. Gaffen, L. Bengtsson, C. Doutriaux, J.S. Boyle, M. Esch, J.J. Hnilo, P.D. Jones, G.A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, K.E. Taylor, and M.F. Wehner, 2000: Interpreting differential temperature trends at the surface and in the lower troposphere. Science, 287, 1227--1232.
  • Meehl, G.A., F. Zwiers, J. Evans, T. Knutson, L. Mearns, and P. Whetton, 2000: Trends in extreme weather and climate events: Issues related to modeling extremes in projections of future climate change. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 81, 427--436.
  • Trenberth, K.E., K. Miller, L. Mearns, and S. Rhodes 2000: Effects of Changing Climate on Weather and Human Activities. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts Series, Global Change Instruction Program, UCAR. University Science Books. 46 pp.
  • Meehl, G.A., J.W. Hurrell, and H. van Loon, 1998: A modulation of the mechanism of the semiannual oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere. Tellus, 50A, 442--450.
  • Trenberth, K.E. 1998: Atmospheric moisture residence times and cycling: Implications for rainfall rates with climatic change. Climatic Change, 39, pp. 667--694.
  • Trenberth, K.E. et. al. 1998: The CLIVAR Initial Implementation Plan. WCRP 103, WMO/TD 869, ICPO 14, 356 pp.
  • Trenberth, K.E., et. al. 1997: Common questions about climate change. WMO, UNEP. 24 pp.
  • Trenberth, K.E. 1997: Global Warming: It's Happening. naturalSCIENCE, 1, article 9.
  • Comment by S. Fred Singer and Reply by K.E. Trenberth.
  • Comment by Hugh Ellsaesser and Reply by K.E. Trenberth.
  • Trenberth, K.E. 1997: The science of global climate change. Jobs and Capital, VI,4, pp.20-25.
  • Meehl, G.A., W.M. Washington, D.J. Erickson III, B.P. Briegleb, and P.J. Jaumann, 1996: Climate change from increased CO2 and the direct and indirect effects of sulfate aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 3755--3758.
  • Meehl, G.A., and W.M. Washington, 1996: El Nino-like climate change in a model with increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Nature, 382, 56--60.
  • Meehl, G. A., 1996: Vulnerability of fresh water resources to climate change in the tropical Pacific region. J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 92, 203--213.