Energy Budgets

Energy Budget map

The global annual mean Earth's energy budget for the March 2000 - May 2004 period (W m-2). The broad arrows indicate the schematic flow of energy in proportion to their importance. - From Trenberth et al., 2009.

 

Land and ocean energy budgets

CERES-period-mean best-estimate FMI TOA fluxes (PW) globally and for the (right) global land and (left) global ocean regions. - From Fasullo and Trenberth, 2008a.

 

Missing energy

Estimated rates of change of global energy. - From Fasullo and Trenberth, 2010.

 

Atmospheric Transports

The ERBE period zonal mean annual cycle of the meridional energy transport in PW by (a) the atmosphere and ocean from ERBE products (b) the atmosphere based on NRA; and (c) by the ocean as implied by ERBE + NRA and GODAS. Stippling and hatching in (a)–(c) represent regions and times of year in which the standard deviation of the monthly mean values among estimates, some of which include the CERES period (see text), exceeds 0.5 and 1.0 PW, respectively. (d) The median annual mean transport by latitude for the total (gray), atmosphere (red), and ocean (blue) accompanied with the associated 2 range (shaded). - From Fasullo and Trenberth, 2008b.

 

For information on how budget products are calculated, see: Budget Calculations

 

Relevant Publications:

  • Trenberth, K. E., J. T. Fasullo, C. O'Dell, and T. Wong, 2010: Relationships between tropical sea surface temperatures and top-of-atmosphere radiation. Geophys. Res. Ltt., 37, L03702, doi:10.1029/2009GL042314. [PDF]
  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. T. Fasullo, 2010: Tracking Earth's energy. Science, 328, 316-317.Summary, Reprint [PDF], Full Text
  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. T. Fasullo, 2010: Simulation of present day and 21st century energy budgets of the southern oceans. J. Climate, 23, No. 2, 440-454. [PDF]
  • Trenberth, K. E., 2010: The ocean is warming, isn't it? Nature, 465, 304. [PDF]
  • Trenberth, K. E., and L. Smith, 2009: The three dimensional structure of the atmospheric energy budget: methodology and evaluation. Clim. Dyn., 32, 1065-1079. doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0389-3. [PDF]. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com.
  • Trenberth, K. E., J. T. Fasullo, and J. Kiehl, 2009: Earth's global energy budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, No. 3, 311-324, doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2634.1. [PDF]
  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. T. Fasullo, 2009: Changes in the flow of energy through the Earth's climate system. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 18, No. 4, 369-377. [PDF]
  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. T. Fasullo, 2009: Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation. Geophys. Res. Lttrs., 36, L07706, doi:10.1029/2009GL037527. [PDF]
  • Trenberth, K. E., 2009: An imperative for climate change planning: tracking Earth's global energy. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 1, 19-27, doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2009.06.001. [PDF] Click here for the Science Direct link including a video presentation of the abstract.
  • Trenberth, K. E., and L. Smith, 2008: Atmospheric energy budgets in the Japanese Reanalysis: Evaluation and variability. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 86, 579-592. [PDF]
  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. Fasullo, 2008: The energy budgets of Atlantic hurricanes and changes from 1970. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, doi:10.1029/2007GC001847. [PDF].
  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. Fasullo, 2008: An observational estimate of ocean energy divergence. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 984-999. [PDF]
  • Fasullo, J. T., and K. E. Trenberth, 2008: The annual cycle of the energy budget. Part II: Meridional structures and poleward transports. J. Climate, 21, 2313-2325. [PDF]
  • Fasullo, J. T., and K. E. Trenberth, 2008: The annual cycle of the energy budget. Part I: Global mean and land-ocean exchanges. J. Climate, 21, 2297-2312. [PDF]