In order to fully understand long-term climate changes, analyses of observed and model-simulated climate changes, especially aspects related to the global hydrological cycle should be given due dilligence. Such aspects include: changes in atmospheric and near-surface water vapor, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation amount, frequency, intensity and diurnal cycle, evaporation, soil moisture, drought, runoff, streamflow, and continental freshwater discharge.
The hydrological cycle. Estimates of the main water reservoirs, given in plain font in 103 km3, and the flow of moisture through the system, given in slant font (103 km3 yr-1, equivalent to Eg (1018 g) yr-1 . - From Trenberth et al., 2007
Adapted time series of 20°N to 20°S ERBS non-scanner wide-field-of-view broadband short- wave, longwave, and net radiation anomalies from 1985 to 1999 [Wielicki et al., 2002a, 2002b] where the anomalies are defined with respect to the 1985 to 1989 period with Edition 3_Rev 1 data [Wong et al., 2006]. - From Trenberth and Dai, 2007.
Time series of the annual water year (Oct. to Sep.); note slight offset of points plotted vs. tick marks indicating January continental freshwater discharge and land precipitation (from Figure 1) for the 1985 to 1999 period. The period clearly influenced by the Mount Pinatubo eruption is indicated by grey shading. - From Trenberth and Dai, 2007
Basin-averaged trends in the water and energy budget components for the Mississippi River basin: M is the long-term (1948–2004) annual (water year) mean (in mm for water components and W m 2 for energy components) and b is the annual linear trend during 1948–2004 (in mm century 1 for water components and W m 2 century 1 for energy components, proportional to arrow shaft width). Note that the downward arrow means that the flux increases the trend of dW/dt or G. - From Qian et al., 2007.
Linear trends from 1948-2004 in annual (water year) runoff trend inferred from the discharge. - Adapated from Dai et al., 2009.
Map and trends of PDSI. Adapted from Dai et al., 2004 and 2007 IPCC.
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