Fortran 90 subroutine ccm2_hydrostatic_matrix for computing the
CCM hydrostatic matrix * H* defined by Equation (3.a.109)
in NCAR Technical Note 382 (Hack et al., 1993). Based on the hydrostatic
matrix, the geopotential height is computed as

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**Reference**

Hack, J. J., B. A. Boville, B. P. Briegleb, J. T. Kiehl, P. J. Rasch, and D. L. Williamson, 1993: Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2). NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-382+STR, 108 pp.

SUBROUTINE ccm2_hydrostatic_matrix(uppercaseK, pi, p, H) ! FILE: SUBR_ccm2_hydrostatic_matrix.f90 ! AUTHOR: David Stepaniak, NCAR/CGD/CAS ! DATE INITIATED: 21 August 1998 ! LAST MODIFIED: Tue Aug 25 12:03:56 MDT 1998 ! ! NOTE: K and uppercaseK are used interchangeably in comments. ! ! DESCRIPTION: Denoting the number of midpoint model levels by K, ! SUBROUTINE ccm2_hydrostatic_matrix returns the [K x K] CCM2 ! hydostatic matrix H defined by Equation (3.a.109) ! in NCAR Technical Note 382 (Hack et al., 1993). The ! notation in this code follows the notation found in ! the Technical Note. ! ! Let k be the row index of H, l the column index of ! H, p_k the midpoint pressure where k = 1,2...,K arranged ! from top to bottom, and pi the surface pressure. ! (The midpoint pressure values are derived, for example, ! from purely sigma or hybrid coordinate midpoint ! values.) Then, from Hack et al., p. 27, H(k,l) is ! defined as: ! ! / 0, l < k ! | ! | .5 ln( p_(k+1)/p_k ), l = k, k < K ! | ! H(k,l) = < .5 ln( p_(l+1)/p_(l-1) ), l > k, k < K ! | ! | .5 ln( pi^2/(p_(K-1)p_K) ), l = K, k < K ! | ! \ ln( pi/p_K ) l = K, k = K ! ! ! ! A prime example of the utility of H is in the calculation ! of Z2 (a code-defined derived field) from the CCM processor. ! Z2 is the geopotential height based on the CCM2 hydrostatic ! formulation. For a given vertical profile of virtual tempera- ! ture, say TV_k, Z2 in Fortran 90 is given by the matrix ! equation ! ! Z2 = PHIS/g + (R/g) * H * TV ! ! where PHIS is the surface geopotential and R is the gas ! constant for dry air. In this case the column vector Z2 ! represents the geopotential height arranged from top to ! bottom. ! ! REFERENCE: Hack, J.J., B.A. Boville, B.P. Briegleb, J.T. Kiehl, P.J. ! Rasch, D.L. Williamson, 1993: Description of the NCAR ! Community Climate Model (CCM2). NCAR Technical Note ! NCAR/TN-382+STR, 108 pp. ! IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: uppercaseK ! Number of midpoint model levels REAL, INTENT(IN) :: pi ! Surface pressure, Pa or mb. REAL, DIMENSION(1:uppercaseK), INTENT(IN) :: p ! Midpoint pressure values, ! ARRANGED FROM TOP TO BOTTOM. ! Units Pa or mb, but same as ! units used for pi. (In the NCEP ! reanalysis p = sigma*pi where ! sigma = 0.0027, 0.0101, 0.0183, ! 0.0288, 0.0418, 0.0580, 0.0782, ! 0.1028, 0.1326, 0.1682, 0.2101, ! 0.2582, 0.3125, 0.3720, 0.4357, ! 0.5017, 0.5681, 0.6329, 0.6943, ! 0.7508, 0.8014, 0.8458, 0.8838, ! 0.9159, 0.9425, 0.9644, 0.9821, ! 0.9950) REAL, DIMENSION(1:uppercaseK,1:uppercaseK), INTENT(OUT) :: H ! CCM2 hydrostatic matrix defined ! by Equation (3.a.109) in Hack ! et al. (1993). H is indexed ! as H(k,l) where k and l are ! defined below. ! Local variables: INTEGER :: k ! Lower case k representing the ! row index of H. INTEGER :: l ! Lower case l representing the ! column index of H. ! Initialize all elements of H as 0.: H = 0. ! Compute all diagonal elements of H except H(K,K): DO k = 1, uppercaseK - 1 H(k,k) = .5 * LOG( p(k+1) / p(k) ) END DO ! Compute all off-diagonal elements of H, except for last two rows, and last ! column: DO k = 1, uppercaseK - 2 DO l = k + 1, uppercaseK - 1 H(k,l) = .5 * LOG( p(l+1) / p(l-1) ) END DO END DO ! Compute last column of H, except k = K: DO k = 1, uppercaseK - 1 H(k,uppercaseK) = .5 * LOG( pi*pi / (p(uppercaseK-1)*p(uppercaseK)) ) END DO ! Compute H(K,K): H(uppercaseK,uppercaseK) = LOG( pi / p(uppercaseK) ) END SUBROUTINE ccm2_hydrostatic_matrix

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