Annual mean shortwave radiation absorbed in the atmosphere. (a. Top panel: CAM forced with the new Collins/Rasch aerosol climatology; (b. Middle panel: standard CAM; (c. Atmospheric aerosol forcing computed from the difference of (a. and (b. Large positive values are associated with regions of significant anthropogenic and natural dust concentrations. The aerosols included in the simulation are sulfates, dust, sea salt, and black and organic carbonaceous species.