FY99 ASR Publications

*Achatz, U., and G. W. Branstator, 1999: A Two-Layer Model with Empirical Linear Corrections and Reduced Order for Studies of Internal Climate Variability, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 3140-3160.

*Alexander, M., C. Deser, and *M. Timlin, 1998: The re-emergence of SST anomalies in the North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 12, 2419-2431.

Asner, G. P., C. A. Wessman, and D. S. Schimel, 1998: Heterogeneity of savanna canopy structure and function from imaging spectrometry and inverse modeling. Ecological Applications 8, 1022-1036.

Baird, A. J., and R. L. Wilby, Eds., 1999: Eco-Hydrology: Plants and Water in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments. Routledge, 402 pp.

Barnett, T. P., D. W. Pierce, R. Saravanan, N. Schneider, D. Dommenget, M. Latif, 1999: Origins of the midlatitude Pacific decadal variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1453-1456.

*Barnett, T. P., *D. W. Pierce, *M. Latif, *D. Dommenget, and R. Saravanan, 1999: Interdecadal interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes in the Pacific Basin. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 615-618.

Baron, J. S., M. D. Hartman, T. G. F. Kittel, L. E. Band, D. S. Ojima, *R. B. Lammers, 1998: Effects of land cover, water redistribution, and temperature on ecosystem processes in the South Platte Basin. Ecological Applications, 8, 1037-1051.

Barth, M., P. J. Rasch, J. T. Kiehl, *C. M. Benkovitz and *S. E. Schwartz, 1999: Sulfur chemistry in the NCAR CCM: Description, evaluation, features and sensitivity to aqueous chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

Berliner, L. M., *J. A. Royle, C. K. Wikle, and R. F. Milliff, 1998: Bayesian methods in the atmospheric sciences. Bayesian Statistics 6, J. M. Barnardo, J. O. Berger, A. P. Dawid, and A. F. Smith, Eds., Oxford University Press, 83-100.

*Berloff, P. S., and J. C. McWilliams, 1999: Large-scale, low-frequency variability in wind-driven ocean gyres. J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press.

Bonan, G. B., and L. M. Stillwell-Soller, 1998: Soil water and the persistence of floods and droughts in the Mississippi River Basin. Water Resour. Res., 34, 2693-2701.

Brady, E. C., R. M. DeConto, and S. L. Thompson, 1998: Deep water formation and poleward ocean heat transport in the warm climate extreme of the Cretaceous (80 Ma). Geophys. Res. Lett., 25:22, 4205-4208.

Branstator, G., and *S. E. Haupt, 1999: An empirical model of barotropic atmospheric dynamics and its response to tropical forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., in press.

Brasseur, G. P., D. A. Hauglustaine, W. Walters, P. J. Rasch, *J. -F. Muller, C. Granier, and X. X. Tie, 1998: MOZART: A global chemical transport model for ozone and related chemical  tracers, part 1: Model description. J. Geophys. Res,, 103, 28265-28289

Brasseur, G. P., J. T. Kiehl, *J. -F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X X Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, 1998: Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: Impact on radiative forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3807-3810.

*Celaya, M., *J. Wahr, and F.O. Bryan, 1999: Climate driven polar motion. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 12 813-12 829.

Chase, T. N., R. A. Pielke, Sr., T. G. F. Kittel, J. S. Baron, and T. J. Stohlgren, 1999: Potential impacts on Colorado Rocky Mountain weather due to land use changes on the adjacent Great Plains. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 16673-16690.

Chase, T. N., R. A. Pielke, Sr., T. G. F. Kittel, *R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, 1999: Simulated impacts of historical land cover changes on global climate in northern winter. Climate Dynamics, in press.

*Ciais, P., *P. Friedlingstein, D. S. Schimel, and *P. P. Tans, 1999: A global calculation of the d13C of soil respired carbon: Implications for the biospheric uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 519-530.

Cleveland, C. C., A. R. Townsend, D. S. Schimel, H. Fisher, R. W. Howarth, L. O. Hedin, S. S. Perakis, E. F. Latty, J. C. Von Fischer, A. Elseroad, and M. F. Wasson, 1999: Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural ecosystems. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 623-645.

Collins, W. D., 1998: A global signature of enhanced shortwave absorption by clouds. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31 669-31 679.

*Colucci, S. J., D. P. Baumhefner, and *C. E. Konrad II, 1999: Numerical prediction of a cold-air outbreak: A case study with ensemble forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 1538-1550.

Cressie, N., and C. K. Wikle, 1998: The variance-based cross-variogram: You can add apples and oranges. Mathematical Geology, 30, 789-799.

Dai, A., 1999: Recent changes in the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 341–344.

Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth and *T. R. Karl, 1999: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451–2473.

Dai, A., and C. Deser, 1999: Diurnal and semidiurnal variations in global surface wind and divergence fields. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycles over the contiguous United States. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402.

Dai, A., and J. Wang, 1999: Diurnal and semidiurnal tides in global surface pressure fields. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 3874-3891.

Dawson, C. W., and R. L. Wilby, 1999: A comparison of artifical neural networks used for rainfall-funoff modelling. Hydrology and Earth Systems Science, in press.

Deser, C., 1999: On the annularity of the Arctic Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

Deser, C., *M. A. Alexander, and *M. S. Timlin, 1999: Evidence for a wind-driven intensification of the Kuroshio Current Extension from the 1970s to the 1980s. J. Climate, 12, 1697-1706.

Deser, C., J. E. Walsh, and *M. S. Timlin, 1999: Arctic sea ice variability in the context of recent atmospheric circulation trends. J. Climate, in press.

Doney, S. C., 1999: Major challenges confronting marine biogeochemical modeling. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 705-714.

Doney, S. C., *D. W. R. Wallace, and *H. W. Ducklow, 1999: The North Atlantic Carbon Cycle: New Perspectives from JGOFS and WOCE. The Dynamic Ocean Carbon Cycle: A Midterm Synthesis of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, R. Hanson, H. Ducklow, and J. Field, Eds., Cambridge University Press, in press.

*Ehrendorfer, M., R. M. Errico, and K. D. Raeder, 1999: Singular vector perturbation growth in a primitive equation model with moist physics. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1627-1648.

Errico,R. M., 1999: Workshop on assimilation of satellite Data. Bul. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 463-471.

Errico, R. M., 1999: Report of the workshop on assimilation of satellite data held at NASA/GSFC 21-23 April 1998. Bul Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 463-471.

Errico, R. M., and K. D. Raeder, 1999: An examination of the accuracy of the linearization of a mesoscale model with moist physics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., in press.

Errico, R. M., and *R. Langland, 1999: Notes on the appropriateness of "bred modes" for generating initial perturbations used in ensemble prediction. Tellus, in press.

Errico, R. M. and *R. Langland, 1999: Response to comments by Toth et al. Tellus, 51A, 450-451.

Errico, R. M., and K. D. Raeder, 1999: An examination of the accuracy of the linearization of a mesoscale model with moist physics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, 169-195.

Eugster W., W. R. Rouse, R. A. Pielke, Sr., J. P. McFadden, *D. D. Baldocchi, T. G. F. Kittel, F. S. Chapin, III, G. E. Liston, P. L. Vidale, *E. Vaganov, and S. Chambers, 1999: Land-atmosphere energy exchange in arctic tundra and boreal forest: available data and feedbacks to climate. Global Change Biology, in press.

Fuentes, M., 1999: Predicting integrals of diffusion processes with unknown diffusion parameters. Stochastics, in press.

Fuentes, M., S. C. Doney, *D. M. Glover, and S. McCue, 1999: Spatial-Temporal structure of ocean color data in the North Atlantic (to appear as a chapter in the book that Doug is editor).

Giorgi, F., G. A. Meehl, *A. Kattenberg, *H. Grass, *J. F. B. Mitchell, *R. J. Stouffer, *T. Tokioka, *A. J. Weaver, and T. M. L. Wigley, 1998: Simulation of climate change with global coupled climate models and regional modeling techniques. (Annex B to) The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. A Special Report of IPCC Working Group II, R.T. Watson, M.C. Zinyowera and R.H. Moss, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 427–437.

Grunwald, G. K., and R. H. Jones, 1999: Markov models for time series with mixed distribution. Envirometrics, in press.

*Hassan, H., A. Aramaki, K. Hanaki, T. Matsuo, and R. L. Wilby, 1999: Lake stratification and temperature profiles simulated used downscaled GCM output. Wat. Sci. Tech., 38, 217–226.

Hauglustaine, D. A., G. P. Brasseur, S. Walters, P. J. Rasch, *J. -F. Muller, L. K. Emmons, and M. A. Carroll, 1998: MOZART: A global chemical transport model for ozone and related chemical tracers, part 2: Model results and evaluation. J. Geophys. Res, 103, 28291-28335.

Hoffert, M. I., *A. K. Caldeira, A. K. Jain, *E. F. Haites, L. D. D. Harvey, S. D. Potter, M. E. Schlesinger, S. H. Schneider, R. G. Watts, T. M. L. Wigley, and D. J. Wuebbles, 1999: Energy Implications of CO2 Stabilization. Nature, 395, 881-884.

*Hua, B. L., J. C. McWilliams, and *P. Klein, 1998: Lagrangian acceleration and dispersion in geostrophic turbulence. J. Fluid Mech., 366, 87-108.

Hurrell, J. W., 1998: Relationships among recent atmospheric circulation changes, global warming, and satellite temperatures. Sci. Progress, 81, 205-224.

Hurrell, J. W., H. van Loon, and D. J. Shea, 1998: The mean state of the troposphere. Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere, D. Karoly and D. Vincent, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1-46.

Hurrell, J. W., and K. E. Trenberth, 1999: Global sea surface temperature analyses: multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling and reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., in press.

*Joyce, T., C. Deser, and *M. Spall, 1999: Decadal variability of Subtropical Mode Water in the North Atlantic and large-scale patterns of air-sea forcing. J. Climate, in press.

*Julien, K., *S. Legg, J. C. McWilliams, and *J. Werne, 1999: Plumes in rotating convection. Part I: Ensemble statistics and dynamical balances. J. Fluid Mech., in press.

*Karl, T., and K. E. Trenberth, 1999: The human impact on climate. Scientific American, 98-103.

Kiehl, J. T., T. Schneider, *R. Portmann and *S. Solomon, 1999: Climate forcing due to tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

Kiehl, J. T., T. L. Schneider, P. J. Rasch, M. Barth and *J. Wong, 1998: Radiative Forcing due to sulfate aerosols from simulations with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3), J. Geophys. Res., in press.

*Kinney, R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1999: Turbulent cascades in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics. Phys. Rev. E, in press.

Kittel, T. G. F., 1998: Effects of climatic variability on herbaceous phenology and observed species richness in temperate montane habitats, Lake Tahoe Basin, Nevada. Madrono, 45 75-84.

Kittel, T. G. F., *W. L. Steffen, and F. S. Chapin, III, 1999: Global and regional modeling of arctic-boreal vegetation distribution and its sensitivity to altered forcing. Global Change Biology, in press.

Labitzke, K. G., and H. van Loon, 1999: The Stratosphere Phenomena, History, and Relevance. Springer-Verlag, 179 pp.

Large, W. G., and P. R. Gent, 1998: Validation of vertical mixing in an equatorial ocean model using large eddy simulations and observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 449-464.

*Lee, K., *R. Wanninkhof, *T. Takahashi, S. C. Doney, and *R. A. Feely, 1998: Low interannual variability in recent oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature, 396, 155-159.

*Lee, K., *R. Wanninkhof, *T. Takahashi, S. C. Doney, and *R. A. Feely, 1999: No evidence for large interannual variations in oceanic carbon uptake. Nature, in press.

*Legg, S., J. C. McWilliams, and *J. Gao, 1998: Localization of deep ocean convection by a geostrophic eddy. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 944-970.

Lejenäs, H., and R. A. Madden, 1999: Mountain torques caused by normal-mode global Rossby waves and the impact on atmospheric angular momentum. J. Atmos. Sci., in press.

Levine, R. A., and L. M. Berliner, 1999: Statistical principles for climate change studies. J. Climate, 12, 564–574.

Levis, S., J. A. Foley, and D. Pollard, 1999: Potential high-latitude vegetation  feedbacks on CO2-induced climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 26,  747-750.

Levis, S., J. A. Foley, and D. Pollard, 1999: CO2, climate, and vegetation  feedbacks at the last glacial maximum. J. Geophys. Res., in  press.

Levis, S., J. A. Foley, and D. Pollard, 1999: On the stability of the high-latitude climate-vegetation system in a coupled atmosphere-biosphere model. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, in press.

Levis, S., J. A. Foley, and D. Pollard, 1999: Large scale vegetation feedbacks on a
doubled CO2 climate. J. Climate, in press.

Lietzke, C. E., C. Deser, and T. H. Vonder Haar, 1999: Evolutionary structure of the eastern Pacific doubled ITCZ based on satellite moisture profile retrievals. J. Climate, in press.

Limpasuvan, V., C. B. Leovy, *Y. J. Orsolini, and B. A. Boville, 1999: A numerical simulation of the two-day wave near the stratopause. J.  Atmos. Sci, in press.

Liu, S., W. A. Reiners, *M. Keller, and D. S. Schimel, 1999: Model simulation of changes in N2O and NO emissions with conversion of tropical rain forests to pastures in the Costa Rican Atlantic Zone. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 663-677.

*Lu, Z-Q. and L. M. Berliner, 1999: Markov switching time series models with application to daily runoff series. Water Resour. Res., 35, 523–534.

Lynch, A. H., G.B. Bonan, F. S. Chapin III, W. Wu, 1999:  The impact of tundra ecosystems on the surface energy budget and climate of Alaska. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6647-6660.

Madden, R. A., T. J. Hoar, and R. F. Milliff, 1998: Scatterometer winds composited according to the phase of the Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillation. Tellus, 51A, 263-272.

Madden, R. A., D. J. Shea, R. W. Katz, and *J. W. Kidson, 1998: The potential for long-range predictability of precipitation over New Zealand. Int. J. Climate, 19. 405-421.

Madden, R. A., H. Lejenäs, and J. J. Hack, 1998: Semi-diurnal variations in the budget of angular momentum in a general circulation model and in the real atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 2561-2575.

Madden, R. A., and D. J. Shea, 1999: To potential for long-range predictability of temperature and precipitation over Japan. J. Japanese Meteor. Soc., in press.

*Marshall, J., *F. Dobson, *K. Moore, *P. Rhines, *M. Visbeck, *E. d'Asaro, *K. Bumke, *S. Chang, *R. Davis, *K. Fischer, *R. Garwood, *P. Guest, *R. Harcourt, *C. Herbaut, *T. Holt, *J. Lazier, *S. Legg, J. McWilliams, *R. Pickart, *M. Prater, *I. Renfrew, *F. Schott, *U. Send, and *W. Smethie, 1998: The Labrador Sea deep convection experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 2033-2058.

McWilliams, J. C., and *J. M. Restrepo, 1999: The wave-driven ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press.

McWilliams, J. C., *I. Yavneh, *M. J. P. Cullen, and P. R. Gent, 1999: Limits of balance, loss of stability, and a conjecture about turbulent cascade and dissipation rates. Physics of Fluids, in press.

Meehl, G. A., 1998: Climate modeling. Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere, D. Karoly and D. Vincent, Eds., American Meteorological Society, 365-410.

Meehl, G. A., 1998: Scale interactions in atmosphere, ocean and coupled models. Climatic Impact of Scale Interactions for the Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere System, J. Slingo, P. Delecluse, and G. Komen, Eds., Euroclivar Publication 13, 44–45.

Meehl, G. A., J. W. Hurrell, and H. van Loon, 1998: A modulation of the mechanism of the semiannual oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere. Tellus, 50A, 442-450.

Meehl, G. A., J. M. Arblaster, W. G. Strand Jr., 1998: Global scale decadal climate variability, Geophys. Res. Lett, 25, 3983-3986.

Meehl, G. A., W. Collins, B. Boville, J. T. Kiehl, T. M. L. Wigley, and J. M. Arblaster, 1999: Response of the NCAR Climate System Model to increased CO2 and the role of physical processes. Journal of Climate (in press).

Meiring, W., P. Guttorp, and P. D. Sampson, 1999: Space-time estimation of grid-cell hourly ozone levels for assessment of a deterministic model. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 5, 197-222.

Milliff, R. F., W. G. Large, J. Morzel, and G. Danabasoglu, 1999: Ocean general circulation model sensitivity to forcing from scatterometer winds. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

Milliff, R. F., T. J. Hoar, H. van Loon, and M. Raphael, 1999: Quasi-stationary wave variability in NSCAT winds. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11 425–11 435.

Murphy, S. J., *H. E. Hurlburt, and J. J. O'Brien, 1999: The connectivity of mesoscale variability in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1431–1453.

Newton, C. W., and *H. R. Newton, 1999: The Life Cycles of Extratropical Cyclones. The Bergen School Concepts Comes to America. M. Shapiro and S. Gronas, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 41–59.

* Ojima, D., L. Garcia, E. Elgaali, K. Miller, T. Kittel, and J. Lackett, 1999: Potential climate change impacts on water resources in the Great Plains. J. Amer. Water Resources Assoc., in press.

Oleson, K. W., W. J. Emery, and J. A. Maslanik, 1999: Evaluating land surface parameters in the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme using remotely-sensed data sets. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

Otto-Bliesner, B. L., 1999: El Nino/La Nina and Sahel precipitation during the middle Holocene. Geophs. Res. Lett., 26:1, 87-90.

*S. Pawson, *K. Kodera, *K. Hamilton, T. G. Shepherd, S. R. Beagley, B. A. Boville, J. D. Farrara, *T. D. A. Fairlie, *A. Kitoh, W. A. Lahoz, U. Langematz, *E. Manzini, *D. H. Rind, *A. A. Scaife, *K. Shibata, *P. Simon, *R. Swinbank, *L. Takacs, *R. J. Wilson, *J. A. Al-Saadi, *M. Amodei, *M. Chiba, *L. Coy, J. de Grandpre, *R. S. Eckman, *M. Fiorino, *W. L. Grose, *H. Koide, J. N. Koshyk, *D. Li, J. Lerner, *J. D. Mahlman, *N. A. McFarlane, C. R. Mechoso, *A. Molod, A. O'Neill, R. B. Pierce, W. J. Randel, *R. B. Rood, *F. Wu, 1999: The GCM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC: Scientific issues and initial results. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., in press.

Prather, M., *R. Sausen, *A. S. Grossman, *J. M. Haywood, *D. Rind, *B. H. Subbaraya, P. Forster, A. Jain, *M. Ponater, U. Schumann, W.-C. Wang, T. M. L. Wigley, and D. J. Wuebbles, 1999: Potential climate change from aviation. Aviation and the Global Atmosphere, J. E. Penner, D. H. Lister, D. J. Griggs, D. J. Dokken and M. McFarland, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 185–215.

Rasch, P. J, M. Barth, J. T. Kiehl, *C. M. Benkovitz and *S. E. Schwartz, 1999: A description of the global sulfur cycle and its controlling processes in the NCAR CCM3. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

*Reynolds, C., and R. M. Errico, 1999: On the convergence of singular vectors toward Lyapunov vectors. Mon. Wea. Rev., in press.

*Royle, J. A., L. M. Berliner, C. K. Wikle, and R. F. Milliff, 1998: A hierarchical spatial model for constructing wind fields from scatterometer data in the Labrador Sea. Case Studies in Bayesian Statistics IV, C. Gatsonis, R. E. Kass, B. Carlin, A. Carriquiry, A.Gelman, I. Verdinelli, and M. West, Eds., Springer-Verlag, 367-382..

*Royle, J. A., and L. M. Berliner, 1999: A hierarchical approach to multivariate spatial modeling and prediction. J. Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 4, 29–56.

*Santer, B. D., J. J Hnilo*, T. M. L Wigley, J. S. Boyle*, C. Doutriaux*, M. Fiorino*, D. E. Parker*, and K. E. Taylor*, 1999: Uncertainties in observationally based estimates of temperature change in the free atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6305–6333.

Schimel, D. S., and *N. S. Panikov, 1999: Simulation models of terrestrial trace gas fluxes at soil microsites to global scales. Approaches to Scaling of Trace Gas Fluxes in Ecosystems, L. Bouwman, Ed., Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 185-202.

*Schneider, N., *A. J. Miller, *M. A. Alexander, and C. Deser, 1998: Subduction of decadal North Pacific temperature anomalies: Observations and dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1056-1070.

Schneider, T., C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, G. B. Bonan, and L. M. Stillwell-Soller, 1998: Soil water and the persistence of floods and droughts in the Mississippi River Basin. Water Resour. Res., 34, 2693-2701.

*Schneider, N., *S. Venzke, *A. J. Miller, *D. W. Pierce, *T. P. Barnett, C. Deser and *M. Latif, 1999: Pacific thermocline bridge revisited. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1329–1332.

Seth, A., and F. Giorgi, 1999: The effects of domain choice on summer precipitation simulation and sensitivity in a regional climate model. J. Climate, in press.

*Shchepetkin, A., and J. C. McWilliams, 1998: Quasi-monotone advection schemes based on explicit locally adaptive dissipation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1541-1580.

Smith, S. J., and T. M. L. Wigley, 1999: Global warming potentials: 1. Climatic implications of emissions reductions. Climatic Change, 44, (in press).

Smith, S.J., and T.M.L. Wigley, 1999: Global warming potentials: 2. Accuracy. Climatic Change, 44, (in press).

Sneddon, G., 1999: Smoothing in an underdetermined linear model with random explanatory variables. Canadian Journal of Statistics, 27, 63-79.

Trenberth, K. E., 1998: Atmospheric moisture residence times and cycling: Implications for rainfall rates with climate. Clim. Change, 39, 667-694.

Trenberth, K. E., and C. J. Guillemot, 1998: Estimating evaporation-minus-precipitation as a residual of the atmospheric water budget. Global Energy and Water Cycles, K. Browning and R. Gurney, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 236–246.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Short-term Climate Variations. Recent accomplishments and issues for future progress. Storms. Vol 1, R. Pielke Sr. and R. Pielke Jr., Eds., Routledge Press, 126-141.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Earth system processes and interactions. Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. Vol 1, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., in press.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Global climate project shows early promise. Eos, 80, 274-275.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: A perspective on the weather events of 1997 and 1998. Consequences, 4, in press.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Atmospheric moisture recycling: Role of advection and local evaporation. J. Climate, 12, 1368–1381.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Conceptual framework for changes of extremes of the hydrological cycle with climate change. Clim. Change, 42, 327–339.

Trenberth, K. E., and J. W. Hurrell, 1999: Reply to Rajagopalan, Lall and Cane's comment about "The interpretation of short climate records with comments on the North Atlantic and Southern Oscillations'', Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., in press.

Trenberth, K. E., and J. W. Hurrell, 1999: Comment on ``The interpretation of short climate records with comments on the North Atlantic and Southern Oscillations", Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., in press.

Trenberth, K. E., and *T. Owen, 1999: Workshop on indices and indicators for climate extremes. Breakout Group A: Storms. Clim. Change, 42, 9-21.

*Upchurch, G. R., B. L. Otto-Bliesner and *C. R. Scotese, 1999: Terrestrial vegetation and its effects on climate during the latest Cretaceous, Chapter 21 in Evolution of the cretaceous Ocean-Climate System, Special paper 332, E. Barrera and C. Johnson, Eds., The Geological Society of America, 407-426.

van Hees, R. M., J. Lelieveld, and W. D. Collins, 1999: Detecting tropical convection using AVHRR satellite data. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 9213-9228.

van Loon, H., G. A. Meehl, and J. M. Arblaster, 1998: Global scale decadal climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3983.

van Loon, H., and K. Labitzke, 1999: The signal of the 11-year solar cycle in the global stratosphere. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 61, 53-61.

*Wahr, J., *M. Molenaar, and F. Bryan, 1998: Time variability of the Earth's gravity field: Hydrological and oceanic effects and their possible detection using GRACE. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (B12), 30 205-30 229.

Walko, R. L., L. E. Band, J. Baron, T. G. F. Kittel, *R. Lammers, *T. J. Lee, R. A. Pielke, Sr., *C. Taylor, C. Tague, C. J. Tremback, and P. L. Vidale, 1999: Coupled atmosphere-biophysics-hydrology models for environmental modeling. Journal of Applied Meteorology, in press.

*Wanninkhof, R., S. C. Doney, *T. -H. Peng, *J. Bullister, *K. Lee, and *R. A. Feely, 1998: Comparison of methods to determine the anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the Atlantic Coast. Tellus, 51B, 511-530.

*Weiss, J. B., *A. Provenzale, and J. C. McWilliams, 1999: Lagrangian dynamics in high-dimensional point-vortex systems. Phys. Fluids, in press.

Wigley, T. M. L., *R. L. Smith, and *B. D. Santer, 1998: Anthropogenic influence on the autocorrelation structure of hemispheric-mean temperatures. Science, 282,1676-1679.

Wigley, T. M. L., *P. J. Jaumann, *B. D. Santer, and *K. E. Taylor, 1998: Relative detectability of greenhouse-gas and aerosol climate change signals. Climate Dyn., in press.

Wigley, T. M. L., 1999: Stabilization of CO2 concentration levels. The Carbon Cycle, T. M. L. Wigley and D. S. Schimel, Eds., Cambridge University Press, in press.

Wigley, T. M. L., 1999: The Science of Climate of Climate Change: Global and U.S. Perspectives. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA. 48 pp.

Wigley, T. M. L., *P. J. Jaumann, *B. D. Santer, and *K. E. Taylor, 1999: Relative detectability of greenhouse-gas and aerosol climate change signals. Climate Dyn., 14, 781-790.

Wigley, T. M. L., and D. S. Schimel, Eds.,1999: The Carbon Cycle. Cambridge University Press, in press.

Wigley, T.M.L., *R. L. Smith and *B. D. Santer, 1999: The autocorrelation function and human influences on climate (response to comment by Tsonis and Elsner). Science, 285 (Technical Comment), 495a.

Wilby, R. L., 1998: Modelling extreme rainfall using weather pattern and frontal frequencies. J. Hydrol., 212–213, 380–392

Wilby, R. L., 1998: Statistical downscaling of daily precipitation using daily airflow and seasonal teleconnection indices. Climate Research, 10, 163–178.

Wilby, R. L., 1998: The hydrology of drought. Rivers Handbook Volume III: Drought in the Humid Temperate Zone, G. E. Petts and G. McGregor, Eds., Blackwell Science Ltd., in press.

Wilby, R. L., 1998: Towards eco-friendly hydrology. Eco-Hydrology, A. Baird and R. L.

Wilby, Eds., Routledge, in press.

Wilby, R. L., 1999: The future of eco-hydrology. Eco-Hydrology: Plants and water in terrestrial and aquatic environments, A. Baird and R. L. Wilby, Eds., Routledge Physical Environment Series, 346–374.

Wilby, R. L., T. M. L. Wigley, D. Conway, P. D. Jones, B. C. Hewitson, J. Main, and D. S. Wilks, 1998: Statistical downscaling of general circulation model output: A comparison of methods. Water Resour. Res., 34, 2995-3008.

Wilby, R. L., and D. S. Schimel, 1999: Scales of interaction in eco-hydrological relations. Eco-Hydrology: Plants and water in terrestrial and aquatic environments, A. Baird and R. L. Wilby, Eds., Routledge Physical Environment Series, 39–77.

Wilby, R. L., and T. M. L. Wigley, 1999: Precipitation predictors for downscaling: observed and General Circulation Model relationships. International Journal of Climatology, in press.

Wilby, R. L., *L. E. Hay, and *G. H. Leavesley, 1999: A comparison of downscaled and raw GCM output: implications for climate change scenarios in the San Juan River basin, Colorado. Journal of Hydrology, in press.

Wilby, R. L., and O. J. Tomlinson, 1999: The "Sunday Effect" and weekly cycles of Winter weather in the UK. Weather, in press.

Wikle, C. K., L. M. Berliner, and N. Cressie, 1999: Hierarchical Bayesian space-time models. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, in press.

Wikle, C. K., R. F. Milliff, and W. G. Large, 1999: Surface wind variability on spatial scales from 1 to 1000 km observed during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2222-2231.

Williamson, D. L., 1999: Numerical approximations for global atmospheric models. Global Energy and Water Cycles, K. Browning and R.J. Gurney, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 33-43.

Wilks, D. S., and R. L. Wilby, 1999: The weather generation game: a review of stochastic weather models. Progress in Physical Geography, 23, 329-357.

Wu, X. W. D. Hall, W. W. Grabowski, M. W. Moncrieff, W. D. Collins, and J. T. Kiehl, 1999: Long-term behavior of Cloud Systems in TOGA COARE and their interactions with radiative and surface processes. Part II: Effects of ice microphysics on cloud-radiation interaction. J.  Atmos. Sci., 56, 3177-3195.

Yates, D. N., T. G. F. Kittel, and R. F. Cannon, 1999: Comparing the correlative Holdridge model to mechanistic biogeographical models for assessing vegetation distribution response to climatic change. Climatic Change, in press.

Zhang, G. J., J. T. Kiehl, and P. J. Rasch, 1998: Response of climate simulation to a new convective paramaterization in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM3). J. Climate, 11, 2097-2115.

OTHER

Chase, T. N., R. A. Pielke, Sr., *M. Zhao, *A. J. Pitman, T. G. F. Kittel, *R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, 1999: The global effects of tropical heating anomalies resulting from deforestation. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Climate Variations, 13-17 September 1999, Denver, Colorado. American Meteorological Society, Boston, submitted.

Dai, A., 1999: Changes in the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the U.S. Proc. 10th Symposium on Global Change Studies, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 129-130.

Daly, C., T. G. F. Kittel, *A. McNab, *J. A. Royle, W. P. Gibson, T. Parzybok, N. Rosenbloom, G. H. Taylor, and H. Fisher, 1999: Development of a 102-year high-resolution spatial climate data set for the conterminous United States. Pages 480-483, in: Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Applied Climatology, 79th AMS Annual Meeting, January 1999, Dallas, TX. American Meteorological Society, Boston.

Deser, C., 1998: Evidence for a wind-driven intensification of the Kuroshio current extension from the 1970s to the 1980s. Extended Abstracts, Rossby-100 Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, The International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm, The Swedish Geophysical Society, The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, the Swedish Natural Science Research Council, The Swedish National Committee for IGBP and WCRP, the Foundations for Wenner-Gren Center, and Henrik Granholms Stiflelse, 87-89.

Deser, C., J. E. Walsh, and *M. S. Timlin, 1998: Arctic sea ice variability in the context of recent wintertime atmospheric circulation trends. Extended Abstracts, Decadal Climate Variability, Williamsburg, VA, NASA, in press.

Fuentes, M., S. C. Doney, *David M. Glover, and *Scott McCue, 1999: Spatial structure of satellite ocean color data. Proc. of the Joint Statistical Meeting, Baltimore, MD, American Statistical Association, The International Biometric Society (ENAR and WNAR), the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and the Statistical Society of Canada, in press.

*Gould, J., and K. E. Trenberth, 1999: The WCRP Joint Scientific Committee - 20th Meeting (JSC XX). Exchanges, 4, 2, 7.

Hurrell, J. W., and K. E. Trenberth, 1999: A comparison of different global SST data sets. Proc. 10th Symposium on Global Change Studies, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89-90.

*Keen, T. M. and S. J. Murphy, 1999: Developing a relocatable coastal ocean forecast model, in: enabling technology for a sustainable environment. Proc. of the Oceanology International 99 Pacific Rim Conf., Singapore. Spearhead Exhibitions Ltd, 47–57.

Kittel, T., D. Schimel, N. Rosenbloom, and H. Fisher, 1998: U.S. climate and ecological data available on CD-ROM and online. Eos 79,47.

Kittel, T., D. Schimel, N. Rosenbloom, and H. Fisher, 1998: VEMAP U.S. climate, vegetation, and soils dataset available on CDROM and on line. The Biogeographer, 55, 2.

Madden, R. A., and H. Lejenäs, 1998: Semidiurnal fluctuations in mountain torque. Extended Abstracts, Rossby-100 Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, The International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm, The Swedish Geophysical Society, The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, the Swedish Natural Science Research Council, The Swedish National Committee for IGBP and WCRP, the Foundations for Wenner-Gren Center, and Henrik Granholms Stiflelse 225-227.

McWilliams, J. C., 1998: The formulation of oceanic general circulation models. Proc. Symposium in honor of Professor Ako Arakawa, General Circulation Model Development: Past, Present, and Future, Academic Press, in press.

McWilliams, J. C., C. -H. Moeng, and P. P. Sullivan, 1998: Turbulent fluxes and coherent structures in marine boundary layers: Investigations by large-eddy simulation. Air-Sea Exchange: Physics, Chemistry, Dynamics, and Statistics, G. Geernaert, Ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, in press.

Meehl, G. A., J. M. Arblaster, and W. G. Strand, 1998: High latitude processes and global decadal time-scale variability in a global coupled GCM. Second ACSYS Conference Proceedings, Orcas Island, WA, WCRP-106, WMO/TD 908 162-163. World Climate Research Programme.

Pielke, R. A., Sr., T. N. Chase, J. Eastman, L. Lu, G. E. Liston, M. B. Coughenour, D. Ojima, W. J. Parton, and T. G. F. Kittel, 1999: Land-atmosphere interactions. In: Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Climate Variations, 13-17 September 1999, Denver, Colorado. American Meteorological Society, Boston. Submitted.

Trenberth, K. E., 1998: A case for slowing the pace of climate change. SOLAR '98 - "Creating the Right Climate", Proc. 36th Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Solar Energy Society. Christchurch New Zealand, Solahart and Canterbury Regional Council, 200-207.

Trenberth, K. E., 1998: Implementation of CLIVAR. Proc. Conf. on the TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE), Boulder, CO, World Meteorological Office, 148-149.

Trenberth, K. E., 1998: Forecasts of the development of the 1997-98 El Niño event. Proc. Second Hayes Symposium on Seasonal to Interannual Climate Variability—The 1997/1998 ENSO Cycle, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 51-54.

Trenberth, K. E., 1998: Forecasts of the development of the 1997-98 El Niño event. Proc. International Symposium Triangle '98, Kyoto, Japan. Japan Marine Science and Technology, Frontier Research System for Global Change, International Pacific Research Center, 14-20.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Future ENSO diagnostics. Proc. Second Hayes Symposium on Seasonal to Interannual Climate Variability—The 1997/1998 ENSO Cycle, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 110-113.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Implementing CLIVAR. Proc. 10th Symposium on Global Change Studies, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1-3.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: El Nino and global warming. Proc. 10th Symposium on Global Change Studies. Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 258-260.

Trenberth K. E., 1999: Perspectives on Implementing CLIVAR. Exchanges, 4, 2 , 5–6.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Global climate system change and observations. NASA Scientific Forum on Climate Variability and Global Change. UNISPACE III, Vienna, Austria. NASA, NASA/CP-1999-20924, 15-29.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: The Evolution of CLIVAR science. Proc. International. CLIVAR Conf., Paris, France, World Climate Research Project, WCRP-108, WMO/TD 954, IPCO 27, 17–18.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Earth system processes and interactions. Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, 1. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., in press.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS), Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. vol 1. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. submitted.

Trenberth, K. E., 1999: A perspective on the weather events of 1997 and 1998. Consequences, 4, in press.

Trenberth, K. E., and *R. A. Clarke, 1999: Preface. Proc. International CLIVAR Conf., Paris, France, World Climate Research Project, WCRP-10, WMO/TD 954, ICP) 27, p iii.

Trenberth, D. E., D. P. Stepaniak, and J. M. Caron, 1999: The global monsoon. Proc. Second International Conf. On Reanalyses, Reading, England, World Climate Research Project, in press.

Trenberth, K. E., D. P. Stepaniak, and J. M. Caron, 1999: Global energy and moisture budgets of the atmosphere. Proc. Second International Conf. On Reanalyses, Reading, England, World Climate Research Project, in press.

Washington, W. M., J. W. Weatherly, *A. Semtner, G. A. Meehl, *Y. Zhang, T. Bettge, W. Strand, A. Craig, V. Wayland, and *R. James, 1998: Climate simulations with the DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM). 10th Symposium on Global Change Studies, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 365-368.

Wilby, R.L., 1998: Review of "Global Hydrology" by J.A.A. Jones. Transactions

of the Institute of British Geographers, 23, 536-537.

Wilby, R. L., 1998: The hydrology of drought. Rivers Handbook Volume III: Drought in the Humid Temperate Zone, G. E. Petts and G. McGregor, Eds., Blackwell Science Ltd., in press.

Wilby, R. L., 1998: Review of "Regional Climates of the British Isles" by D. Wheeler and J. Mayes, Eds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 2880–2881.

Wilby, R. L., 1999: Constructing regional climate scenarios by means of statistical downscaling: a comparison of methods. Proc. Air and Waste Management Association's Second International Specialty Conference. Global Climate Change: Science, Policy and Mitigation/Adaptation Strategies, VIP-89, Volume II, J. Kinsman, C. V. Mathai, M. Baer, E. Holt, and M. Trexler. Eds., Air and Waste Management Association, 942-950.

*Wood, S., *F. Nachtergaele, *D. Nielsen, A. Dai, and *K. Sebastian, 1999: Spatial aspects of the design and targeting of development strategies for fragile lands. Proc. International Conference on Strategies for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Resource Management in the Fragile Land of Sub-Saharan Africa, Entebbe, Uganda, National Agricultural Research Organization (Uganda), International Food Policy Research Institute, German Foundation for International Development, and European Commission, in press.