For the first time climate change experiments have been carried out with a fully coupled climate model that employs no flux adjustments and shows no surface climate drift. These simulations also included interactive chemical effects that have previously been ignored or prescribed.
CSM simulations of the 20th and 21st centuries have been carried out. For the 20th century, a control simulation, a transient simulation, a solar variability simulation including the reconstructed solar variation, and a greenhouse gases only simulation were completed (See Figure, 30 KB).  The project involved many participants and was led by J.T. Kiehl, S. Solomon, T.M.L. Wigley, and B.A. Boville with significant contributions from L. Buja.
Three simulations of the 21st century (See Figure, 22 KB) were carried out. The first assumed a business-as-usual increase in CO2, the second assumed that emission of carbon dioxide would stabilize, the third assumed an IPCC scenario.   For more information, click here.


A system for forecasting aerosols has been developed by members of the CGD Climate Modeling Section (Collins, Rasch, and Eaton) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Division (Khattatov, Lamarque, and Zender). The system, the first of its kind, combines a chemical transport model and an assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals. The model simulates the three-dimensional distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The forecast system was used to plan aircraft missions during the recent Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). The CGD scientists are extending the methodology to produce global aerosol analyses (See Figures, 34 KB).  For more information, click here.