Optical properties for each plant functional type. Leaf angle refers to the departure of leaf angles from a random distribution with values of 1 for horizontal leaves, 0 for random leaves, and 1 for vertical leaves. Reflectance and transmittance are for visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) wavebands. NET, needleleaf evergreen tree; NDT; needleleaf deciduous tree; BET, broadleaf evergreen tree; BDT, broadleaf deciduous tree; BES, broadleaf evergreen shrub; BDS, broadleaf deciduous shrub. Two types of crops are allowed to account for the different physiology of crops, but currently only one type is specified in the surface datasets.

 

 

Leaf Angle

Leaf Reflectance

Stem Reflectance

Leaf Transmittance

Stem Transmittance

Plant Functional Type

 

VIS

NIR

VIS

NIR

VIS

NIR

VIS

NIR

NET temperate

0.01

0.07

0.35

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.10

0.001

0.001

NET boreal

0.01

0.07

0.35

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.10

0.001

0.001

NDT boreal

0.01

0.07

0.35

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.10

0.001

0.001

BET tropical

0.10

0.10

0.45

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.25

0.001

0.001

BET temperate

0.10

0.10

0.45

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.25

0.001

0.001

BDT tropical

0.01

0.10

0.45

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.25

0.001

0.001

BDT temperate

0.25

0.10

0.45

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.25

0.001

0.001

BDT boreal

0.25

0.10

0.45

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.25

0.001

0.001

BES temperate

0.01

0.07

0.35

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.10

0.001

0.001

BDS temperate

0.25

0.10

0.45

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.25

0.001

0.001

BDS boreal

0.25

0.10

0.45

0.16

0.39

0.05

0.25

0.001

0.001

C3 grass arctic

-0.30

0.11

0.58

0.36

0.58

0.07

0.25

0.220

0.380

C3 grass

-0.30

0.11

0.58

0.36

0.58

0.07

0.25

0.220

0.380

C4 grass

-0.30

0.11

0.58

0.36

0.58

0.07

0.25

0.220

0.380

Crop1

-0.30

0.11

0.58

0.36

0.58

0.07

0.25

0.220

0.380

Crop2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

Morphology for each plant functional type. Roughness length and displacement height are in proportion to canopy top height. Root distribution at depth z (m) is

f(z)=1-0.5[exp(-az)+exp(-bz)].

 

 

Leaf

Roughness

Displacement

Root Distribution

Plant Functional Type

Dimension (m)

Length

Height

a

b

NET temperate

0.04

0.055

0.67

7.0

2.0

NET boreal

0.04

0.055

0.67

7.0

2.0

NDT boreal

0.04

0.055

0.67

7.0

2.0

BET tropical

0.04

0.075

0.67

7.0

1.0

BET temperate

0.04

0.075

0.67

7.0

1.0

BDT tropical

0.04

0.055

0.67

6.0

2.0

BDT temperate

0.04

0.055

0.67

6.0

2.0

BDT boreal

0.04

0.055

0.67

6.0

2.0

BES temperate

0.04

0.120

0.68

7.0

1.5

BDS temperate

0.04

0.120

0.68

7.0

1.5

BDS boreal

0.04

0.120

0.68

7.0

1.5

C3 grass arctic

0.04

0.120

0.68

11.0

2.0

C3 grass

0.04

0.120

0.68

11.0

2.0

C4 grass

0.04

0.120

0.68

11.0

2.0

Crop1

0.04

0.120

0.68

6.0

3.0

Crop2

-

-

-

-

-

 


Photosynthetic parameters for each plant functional type. Path, photosynthetic pathway; Vmax25, maximum carboxylation at 25C (mmol CO2 m-2 s-1); a, quantum efficiency (mmol CO2 mmol photon-1); m, slope of conductance-photosynthesis relationship.

 

Plant Functional Type

Path

Vmax25

a

m

 

NET temperate

C3

51

0.06

6

NET boreal

C3

43

0.06

6

NDT boreal

C3

43

0.06

6

BET tropical

C3

75

0.06

9

BET temperate

C3

69

0.06

9

BDT tropical

C3

40

0.06

9

BDT temperate

C3

51

0.06

9

BDT boreal

C3

51

0.06

9

BES temperate

C3

17

0.06

9

BDS temperate

C3

17

0.06

9

BDS boreal

C3

33

0.06

9

C3 grass arctic

C3

43

0.06

9

C3 grass

C3

43

0.06

9

C4 grass

C4

24

0.04

5

Crop1

C3

50

0.06

9

Crop2

-

-

-

-