Vertically Integrated Mass, Moisture,
Heat, and Energy Budget Products
Derived from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis
March 2003 Climate Analysis Section, CGD, NCAR Contact: David Stepaniak davestep@ucar.edu My home page 

Contents Accessing the Data 
Threepanel figure shows diabatic minus frictional heating Q_{1} Q_{f} (top), latent heating Q_{2} (middle), and Q_{1}Q_{f}Q_{2} (bottom) which is roughly equivalent to divergence of vertically integrated total energy transport, . The fields represent an annual mean in W m^{2} for the period 19792001 at T31 spectral truncation. Further details are provided below. 
GOES11 image of a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the upward branch of the Hadley Circulation, a region of intense latent heating (see Q_{2} in the second panel in the figure immediately above). Image courtesy of GOES Project Science Office. 
Our monthly mean budget products are derived from 6hourly model () level data which the Data Support Section (DSS) at NCAR makes available in the form of `grbsanl' grib files on the MSS. The DSS web page ` ds090.0 HOME PAGE: NCEP/NCAR Global Reanalysis Products, 6hrly, monthly ' provides extensive documentation and useful background. For an overview of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project see Kalnay and others, 1996.
We note that the spectral truncation of the fields in the grbsanl files is T62 on a 192x94 grid (longitude by latitude), which we subsequently regrid to 192x96 with T63 truncation, the resolution at which we carry out all our budget computations. However, spatial spectra (power as a function of total wavenumber n) shows that in certain derived fields a considerable amount of extraneous power may exist beyond n=42 or so, and thus the final spectral truncation of our products is T42 on a 128 x 64 Gaussian grid ¹.
We make a total of 36 budget products available in both netCDF and Fortran direct access binary files via email requests (see the section Accessing the Data). The description of these products and their derivation is outlined in the following sections, in which product names are highlighted in capital red letters in the tables and text of each section (see especially entries under `Product Name' in tables). The reader is referred to Trenberth (1991, 1997) for derivations and details of the budget equations we employ.
Constant  Symbol  Value  Units 

Specific Heat Capacity of Dry Air at Constant Pressure  C_{p}  1004.64  J kg^{1} K^{1} 
Acceleration Due to Gravity  g  9.80616  m s^{2} 
Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water  L  2.5104x10^{6}  J kg^{1} 
Gas Constant for Dry Air  R_{d}  287.04  J kg^{1} K^{1} 
Ratio of Molecular Weight of Water Vapor to that of Dry Air  0.622  Dimensionless  
Radius of Earth  a  6.37122x10^{6}  m 
Density of Liquid Water  _{H2O}  1.0x10^{3}  kg m^{3} 
Basic Variable  Symbol  Units  Level(s)  Working Spectral Truncation  Times 

Zonal (eastward component) wind  u  m s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Meridional (northward component) wind  v  m s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Temperature  T  K (Kelvin)  28  T63  6hourly 
Specific Humidity  q  kg kg^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Surface pressure  P_{s}  Pa  Surface  T63  6hourly 
Surface geopotential  _{s}  m^{2} s^{2}  Surface  T63  6hourly 
Derived Variable  Symbol  Units  Levels  Working Spectral Truncation  Times 

Kinetic energy  K  J kg^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Geopotential height  z  m (gpm  geopotential meters)  28  T63  6hourly 
Zonal temperature flux  uT  m K s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Meridional temperature flux  vT  m K s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Zonal geopotential height flux  uz  m^{2} s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Meridional geopotential height flux  vz  m^{2} s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Zonal moisture flux  uq  m s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Meridional moisture flux  vq  m s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Zonal kinetic energy flux  uK  J m kg^{1} s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Meridional kinetic energy flux  vK  J m kg^{1} s^{1}  28  T63  6hourly 
Vertically Integrated Monthly Mean Variable  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Monthly mean surface pressure  _{s}  PS  Pa  Surface  T42  Monthly 
In practice, the integral is obtained by computing p_{i} = _{i}_{s} at the model layer interfaces given by _{i} = 0.0000, 0.0066, 0.0139, 0.0231, 0.0347, 0.0492, 0.0672, 0.0894, 0.1165, 0.1492, 0.1878, 0.2329, 0.2842, 0.3414, 0.4033, 0.4686, 0.5353, 0.6013, 0.6648, 0.7240, 0.7777, 0.8253, 0.8664, 0.9013, 0.9305, 0.9546, 0.9742, 0.9900, and 1.0000, where = 0.0000 is the top of the atmosphere, and = 1.0000 is the surface of the Earth. (In the coordinate such as for ERA15, p_{i} = a_{i} + b_{i} _{s} for a_{i} and b_{i} at model layer interfaces.) Then, dp for a given layer is computed as the difference between the pressure of the lower interface bounding the model layer, and the pressure of the upper interface bounding the model layer.
Since the units of dp/g, Pa/(m s^{2}), reduce to kg m^{2}, the term 'mass weighted' is used in association with the vertical integral. We also note that the flux quantities appearing in the following table are not masscorrected. The mass correction and mass corrected fluxes are described in subsequent sections (see Mass Correction and Mass Corrected Vertically Integrated Monthly Mean Fluxes).
Vertically Integrated Monthly Mean Variable  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Spectral Truncation  Times 

Vertically integrated zonal velocity  (u)dp/ g  U  kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42, Final  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional velocity  (v)dp/ g  V  kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42, Final  Monthly 
Vertically integrated temperature  (T)dp/ g  T  K kg m^{2}  Total column  T42, Final  Monthly 
Vertically integrated specific humidity (Precipitable water) 
(q)dp/ g  PW  kg m^{2}  Total column  T42, Final  Monthly 
Vertically integrated geopotential height  (z)dp/ g  Z  kg m^{1}  Total column  T42, Final  Monthly 
Vertically integrated kinetic energy  (K)dp/ g  KE  J m^{2}  Total column  T42, Final  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal temperature flux  (uT)dp/ g    kg K m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T63, Working  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional temperature flux  (vT)dp/ g    kg K m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T63, Working  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal geopotential height flux  (uz)dp/ g    kg s^{1}  Total column  T63, Working  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional geopotential height flux  (vz)dp/ g    kg s^{1}  Total column  T63, Working  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal moisture flux  (uq)dp/ g    kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T63, Working  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional moisture flux  (vq)dp/ g    kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T63, Working  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal kinetic energy flux  (uK)dp/ g    J m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T63, Working  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional kinetic energy flux  (vK)dp/ g    J m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T63, Working  Monthly 
Ã_{18Z, ldpm} = A_{18Z, ldpm}dp/g,
Ã_{00Z, fdgm} = A_{00Z, fdgm}dp/g,
Ã_{18Z, ldgm} = A_{18Z, ldgm}dp/g,
and
Ã_{00Z, fdfm} = A_{00Z, fdfm}dp/g.
Averages are then computed from these quantities for the beginning of the month (bom), and the end of the month (eom):
A_{bom} = ½(A_{18Z, ldpm} + A_{00Z, fdgm}),
A_{eom} = ½(A_{18Z, ldgm} + A_{00Z, fdfm}),
and
Ã_{bom} = ½(Ã_{18Z, ldpm} + Ã_{00Z, fdgm}),
Ã_{eom} = ½(Ã_{18Z, ldgm} + Ã_{00Z, fdfm}).
Finally, a monthly tendency is defined as
ðA/ðt = (A_{eom}  A_{bom})/(N x 86400),
or, for a vertically integrated quantity,
ðÃ/ðt = (Ã_{eom}  Ã_{bom})/(N x 86400)
where ð/ðt is the time derivative operator, N the number of days in a month, and 86400 the number of seconds in a day.
Monthly Tendency  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Precipitable water tendency  ð( qdp/ g)/ðt  QTEN  kg m^{2} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Internal energy tendency  ð( C_{p}Tdp/ g)/ðt  ITEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Kinetic energy tendency  ð( Kdp/ g)/ðt  KTEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Latent energy tendency  ð( Lqdp/ g)/ðt  LETEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Geopotential tendency  ð(
_{s}dp/ g)/ðt = ð(_{s}P_{s}/ g)/ðt 
PHISTEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Total energy tendency 
ð(C_{p}Tdp/ g +
Kdp/ g + Lqdp/ g + _{s}P_{s}/ g)/ðt = ð(C_{p}Tdp/ g)/ðt + ð(Kdp/ g)/ðt + ð(Lqdp/ g)/ðt + ð(_{s}P_{s}/ g)/ðt  TETEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Surface pressure tendency  ðP_{s}/ðt  PSTEN  Pa s^{1}  Surface  T42  Monthly 
EP = ð(qdp/ g)/ðt + ( (uq)dp/ g, (vq)dp/ g)
or, in terms of budget and intermediate products
EP = QTEN + ( (uq)dp/ g, (vq)dp/ g)
where is the divergence operator.
Residual Monthly Mean Variable  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Evaporation minus precipitation  EP  EP  kg m^{2} s^{1} (mm day^{1} in archive) 
Total column  T42  Monthly 
To convert a variable with units kg m^{2} s^{1} to mm day^{1} multiply by (10^{3}mm m^{1} x 86400 s day^{1}) and divide by _{H2O}. Similarly, to convert a variable with units mm day^{1} to W m^{2} multiply by (_{H2O} x L) and divide by (10^{3}mm m^{1} x 86400 s day^{1}).
R = ðP_{s}/ðt + g ( (u)dp/ g, (v)dp/ g)  g (EP)
or, in terms of budget and intermediate products
MRES = PSTEN + g ( (u)dp/ g, (v)dp/ g)  g EP
where
Residual Monthly Mean Variable  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Mass budget residual  R  MRES  Pa s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
= R.
In principle, a mass correction which minimizes the mass budget residual may be obtained by subtracting a barotropic correction (u_{c}, v_{c}) from (, ), i.e. (u_{c},  v_{c}), at each level, where (, ) is the threedimensional monthly mean horizontal wind. Combining the vertically integrated mass and moisture budget equations, substituting (u_{c},  v_{c}) for (, ), and solving for (u_{c}, v_{c}) yields
(u_{c}, v_{c}) = / (_{s}  g (q)dp/ g  _{t}).
Here _{t} is the monthly mean pressure at the top of the atmosphere, this being uniformly 0. In terms of budget and intermediate products
= MRES
(UC, VC) = / (PS  g PW)
where
Residual Monthly Mean Variable  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Barotropic correction to zonal wind 
u_{c}  UC  m s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Barotropic correction to meridional wind 
v_{c}  VC  m s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
In practice, the mass correction is applied to the vertically integrated monthly mean flux quantities, as described in the next section.
(uA)dp/ g
 u_{c} (A)dp/ g
or
(uA)dp/ g 
UC x A
and
(vA)dp/ g
 v_{c} (A)dp/ g
or
(vA)dp/ g 
VC x A
Vertically Integrated Monthly Mean Flux (Mass Corrected) 
Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Vertically integrated zonal temperature flux  (uT)dp/ g
 u_{c} (T)dp/ g
or (uT)dp/ g  UC x T 
UT  kg K m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional temperature flux  (vT)dp/ g
 v_{c} (T)dp/ g
or (vT)dp/ g  VC x T 
VT  kg K m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal geopotential height flux  (uz)dp/ g
 u_{c} (z)dp/ g
or (uz)dp/ g  UC x Z 
UZ  kg s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional geopotential height flux  (vz)dp/ g
 v_{c} (z)dp/ g
or (vz)dp/ g  VC x Z 
VZ  kg s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal moisture flux  (uq)dp/ g
 u_{c} (q)dp/ g
or (uq)dp/ g  UC x PW 
UQ  kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional moisture flux  (vq)dp/ g
 v_{c} (q)dp/ g
or (vq)dp/ g  VC x PW 
VQ  kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal kinetic energy flux  (uK)dp/ g
 u_{c} (K)dp/ g
or (uK)dp/ g  UC x KE 
UK  J m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional kinetic energy flux  (vK)dp/ g
 v_{c} (K)dp/ g
or (vK)dp/ g  VC x KE 
VK  J m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
We note that C_{p}(UT,VT), g(UZ,VZ), L(UQ,VQ), and (UK,VK) all have units of J m^{1} s^{1}. Taking the horizontal divergence, , of any of these, or any sum of these, gives rise to divergences of energy with units W m^{2}.
TEDIV = (C_{p}UT+ gUZ+LUQ+ UK, C_{p}VT+ gVZ+LVQ+ VK)
DSEDIV = (C_{p}UT+ gUZ, C_{p}VT+ gVZ)
LEDIV = (LUQ, LVQ)
KEDIV = (UK, VK)
Divergence of Energy  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Divergence of total energy  TEDIV or 
TEDIV  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Divergence of dry static energy  DSEDIV  DSEDIV  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Divergence of latent energy  LEDIV  LEDIV  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Divergence of kinetic energy  KEDIV  KEDIV  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
where F_{A} is the total atmospheric energy transport (C_{p}UT+ gUZ+LUQ+ UK, C_{p}VT+ gVZ+LVQ+ VK) with units J m^{1} s^{1}. Strictly speaking, `divergence of energy' here refers to `divergence of energy transport'. In addition, we define the zonal mean poleward atmospheric energy transport PAET as
PAET() = [ C_{p}VT(, ) + gVZ(, ) + LVQ(, ) + VK(, )] a cos() d
where is longitude, latitude, and a the radius of the Earth. The units of PAET are W which we normally convert to PW (i.e. 10^{15}W) by dividing PAET by (10^{15}W PW^{1}). Note that at present we do not include PAET as a budget product for this particular archive.
Q_{1}Q_{f} = TETEN+TEDIV  LEP
where –LEP = Q_{2}, the latent heating.
Residual Monthly Mean Variable  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Diabatic minus frictional heating  Q_{1}Q_{f}  Q1QF  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
In general, the estimated frictional heating Q_{f} is less than a few W m^{2} on an annual mean basis (see Peixoto and Oort, 1992, p. 383) and can be safely disregarded compared to the diabatic heating Q_{1}. Thus, Q_{1}Q_{f} Q_{1}.
TE = (g / _{s}) [ C_{p} (T)dp/ g + g (z)dp/ g + L (q)dp/ g + (K)dp/ g ],
or, in terms of archived budget products
TE = (g / PS) [ C_{p}T + gZ + LPW + KE ].
Vertically Averaged Monthly Mean Variable  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Vertically Averaged Total Energy  TE  TE  J kg^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Our budget product offerings would not be complete without an estimate of the
net upward surface flux F_{s} for the ERBE period
February 1985 – April 1989. We compute F_{s} as
F_{s} = TETEN + TEDIV  R_{T} where R_{T} is the net downward radiation through the topoftheatmosphere (TOA), and R_{T} = A_{T}  O_{T} where A_{T} and O_{T} are the absorbed solar (shortwave) radiation and outgoing longwave radiation, respectively, at the TOA. In terms of archived budget products this reads FS = TETEN + TEDIV  NET and NET = ASR  OLR. 

An annual mean net upward surface flux F_{s} for the ERBE period is shown below.  Threepanel figure shows TOA annual mean absorbed solar (shortwave) radiation A_{T} (top), outgoing longwave radiation O_{T} (middle), and net radiation R_{T} (bottom) which is given by R_{T} = A_{T}  O_{T}. The units in all three panels is W m^{2} at T31 spectral truncation. The annual mean is in fact an annualized mean over the ERBE period February 1985 – April 1989. 
Radiation Product or Net Surface Flux  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Absorbed solar radiation  A_{T}  ASR  W m^{2}, > 0 downward through TOA 
TOA  T42  Monthly, February 1985 – April 1989 only 
Outgoing longwave radiation  O_{T}  OLR  W m^{2}, > 0 upward through TOA 
TOA  T42  Monthly, February 1985 – April 1989 only 
Net downward radiation  R_{T}  NET  W m^{2}, > 0 downward through TOA 
TOA  T42  Monthly, February 1985 – April 1989 only 
Net upward surface flux  F_{s}  FS  W m^{2}, > 0 upward through surface into atmosphere 
surface  T42  Monthly, February 1985 – April 1989 only 
Figure (above) shows an annualized mean net upward surface flux F_{s} for the ERBE period (February 1985 – April 1989) in W m^{2} at T42 spectral truncation. Negative (blue) regions in equatorial and Tropical oceans represent a net flux of energy from the atmosphere into the oceans on an annual mean basis. Other noteworthy features are the significant net fluxes of energy from the Kuroshio, the Gulf Stream, and the Aghulas Current into the atmosphere. (Note that we have masked land areas in this figure – ideally, F_{s} should be roughly 0 over land areas. We also show both masked and unmasked versions of this figure.) 
The file naming convention for 32 of the 36 products is
T42t_PRODUCTNAME_19792001_MM.EXT
where T42t signifies T42 spectral truncation with `tapering' (see Sardeshmukh and Hoskins, 1984), PRODUCTNAME is the name of a budget product highlighted in red in the previous sections or in the summary table shown below, MM refers to `monthly mean', and EXT is either `nc' for netCDF or `Fda' for Fortran direct access. Users need only specify PRODUCTNAME and EXT. Note that in the case of A_{T}, O_{T}, R_{T}, and F_{s}, the file naming convention is
T42t_PRODUCTNAME_198502198904_MM.EXT
for the ERBE period radiation products and net upward surface flux.
The size of a file is 9043968 bytes (.Fda) to roughly 9047300 bytes (.nc) each – for A_{T}, O_{T}, R_{T}, and F_{s}, the size of a file is 1671168 bytes (.Fda) to roughly 1673300 bytes (.nc) each.
The files may be obtained via email requests.
The metadata of the netCDF files may be viewed with ncdump, for example, ncdump h T42t_TEDIV_19792001_MM.nc.
The coordinate variables (time, lat, lon) and the coordinate variable values are listed for convenience on a separate web page.
A short Fortran program, `READ_FDA', for reading the Fortran direct access (.Fda) version of the files may be viewed separately. Or, simply download PROG_READ_FDA.f90 using your browser. We also make available a Fortran 90 subroutine, ccm2_hydrostatic_matrix, for computing the hydrostatic matrix H (see the section Derived Fields at 6hourly Resolution above).
For convenience we include an ocean depth and land elevation data set at 128x64 (i.e. `T42 Gaussian') resolution with longitudes and latitudes identical to those in the netCDF and Fortran direct access budget product files. For more information, see T42b_ELEVATION.nc and T42b_ELEVATION.Fda, which are now available via request only. We routinely use this ocean depth and land elevation data file as a landsea mask, where ELEVATION < 0 represents oceans and seas, and ELEVATION 0 represents land. Sea ice is not represented in this data set. An image of the 128x64 ocean depth and land elevation data set is provided. (This link also includes further details about the construction of the data set).
Variable  Symbol  Product Name  Units  Level  Final Spectral Truncation  Times 

Monthly mean surface pressure  _{s}  PS  Pa  Surface  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal velocity  (u)dp/ g  U  kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional velocity  (v)dp/ g  V  kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated temperature  (T)dp/ g  T  K kg m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Precipitable water  (q)dp/ g  PW  kg m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated geopotential height  (z)dp/ g  Z  kg m^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated kinetic energy  (K)dp/ g  KE  J m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Precipitable water tendency  ð( qdp/ g)/ðt  QTEN  kg m^{2} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Internal energy tendency  ð( C_{p}Tdp/ g)/ðt  ITEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Kinetic energy tendency  ð( Kdp/ g)/ðt  KTEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Latent energy tendency  ð( Lqdp/ g)/ðt  LETEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Geopotential tendency  ð(
_{s}dp/ g)/ðt = ð(_{s}P_{s}/ g)/ðt 
PHISTEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Total energy tendency 
ð(C_{p}Tdp/ g +
Kdp/ g + Lqdp/ g + _{s}P_{s}/ g)/ðt = ð(C_{p}Tdp/ g)/ðt + ð(Kdp/ g)/ðt + ð(Lqdp/ g)/ðt + ð(_{s}P_{s}/ g)/ðt  TETEN  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Surface pressure tendency  ðP_{s}/ðt  PSTEN  Pa s^{1}  Surface  T42  Monthly 
Evaporation minus precipitation  EP  EP  mm day^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Mass budget residual  R  MRES  Pa s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Barotropic correction to zonal wind 
u_{c}  UC  m s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Barotropic correction to meridional wind 
v_{c}  VC  m s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal temperature flux²;
(Mass Corrected) 
(uT)dp/ g  u_{c} (T)dp/ g  UT  kg K m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional temperature flux²
(Mass Corrected) 
(vT)dp/ g  v_{c} (T)dp/ g  VT  kg K m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal geopotential height flux
² (Mass Corrected) 
(uz)dp/ g  u_{c} (z)dp/ g  UZ  kg s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional geopotential height
flux² (Mass Corrected) 
(vz)dp/ g  v_{c} (z)dp/ g  VZ  kg s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal moisture flux²
(Mass Corrected) 
(uq)dp/ g  u_{c} (q)dp/ g  UQ  kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional moisture flux²
(Mass Corrected) 
(vq)dp/ g  v_{c} (q)dp/ g  VQ  kg m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated zonal kinetic energy flux²
(Mass Corrected) 
(uK)dp/ g  u_{c} (K)dp/ g  UK  J m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically integrated meridional kinetic
energy flux² (Mass Corrected) 
(vK)dp/ g  v_{c} (K)dp/ g  VK  J m^{1} s^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Divergence of total energy  TEDIV or 
TEDIV  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Divergence of dry static energy  DSEDIV  DSEDIV  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Divergence of latent energy  LEDIV  LEDIV  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Divergence of kinetic energy  KEDIV  KEDIV  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Diabatic minus frictional heating  Q_{1}Q_{f}  Q1QF  W m^{2}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Vertically Averaged Total Energy  TE  TE  J kg^{1}  Total column  T42  Monthly 
Absorbed solar radiation  A_{T}  ASR  W m^{2}, > 0 downward through TOA 
TOA  T42  Monthly, February 1985 – April 1989 only 
Outgoing longwave radiation  O_{T}  OLR  W m^{2}, > 0 upward through TOA 
TOA  T42  Monthly, February 1985 – April 1989 only 
Net downward radiation  R_{T}  NET  W m^{2}, > 0 downward through TOA 
TOA  T42  Monthly, February 1985 – April 1989 only 
Net upward surface flux  F_{s}  FS  W m^{2}, > 0 upward through surface into atmosphere 
surface  T42  Monthly, February 1985 – April 1989 only 
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CAS, the Climate Analysis Section in CGD at NCAR.