OS People

Marika Holland, Senior Scientist

Research Interests

My research interests are related to the role of sea ice and polar regions in the climate system, including ice/ocean/atmosphere feedback mechanisms, high latitude climate variability, and abrupt climate change. I am also interested in coupled climate modeling and the improvement of sea ice models for climate simulations.



Kostov, Y., J. Marshall, U. Hausmann, K.C. Armour, D. Ferreira, and M. Holland, 2016: Fast and slow responses of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature to SAM in coupled climate models, Climate Dynamics, submitted.

Lique, C., M.M. Holland, Y.B. Dibike, D.M. Lawrence, and J.A. Screen, 2015: Modeling the Arctic freshwater system and its integration in the global system: Lessons learned and future challenges, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci., accepted.

Prowse, T., A. Bring, J.M. Karlsson, E. Carmack, M. Holland, A. Instanes, T. Vihma, F.J. Wrona, 2015: Arctic Freshwater Synthesis: Summary of key emerging issues, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci., submitted.

Vihma, T., J. Screen, M. Tjernstrom, B. Newton, X Zhang, V. Popova, C. Deser M. Holland, and T. Prowse, The atmospheric role in the Arctic water cycle: processes, past and future change, and their impacts, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci., submitted.

Jung, T., et al., 2015: Advancing polar prediction capabilities on daily to seasonal time scales, BAMS, submitted.



Long, M.C., K. Lindsay, and M.M. Holland, 2015: Modeling photosynthesis in partially ice covered waters, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., doi:10.1002/2015MS000436, in press.

Holland, M.M. and L. Landrum, 2015: Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 373:20140162, doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0162.

Kay, J.E. et al., 2015: The community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Project: A community resource for studying climate change in the presence of climate variability, BAMS, in press. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00255.1.

Light, B., S. Dickinson, D.K. Perovich, and M.M. Holland, 2015: Evolution of summer Arctic sea ice albedo in CCSM4 simulations: Episodic summer snowfall and frozen summers, J. Geophys. Res., 120(1), 284-303, doi:10.1002/2014JC010149.


Wang, S., D. Bailey, K. Lindsay, J.K. Moore, and M. Holland, 2014: Impact of sea ice on the marine iron cycle and phytoplankton productivity., Biogeosciences, 11, 4713-4731, doi:10.5194/bg-11-4713-2014.

Jenouvrier, S., M. Holland, J. Stroeve, M. Serreze, C. Barbraud, H. Weimerskirch, and H. Caswell, 2014: Projected continent-wide declines of the emperor penguin under climate change, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2280.

Tilmes, S., A. Jahn, J.E. Kay, M.M. Holland, and J.-F. Lamarque, 2014: Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea-ice?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058731.


Blazey, B.A., M.M. Holland, and E.C. Hunke, 2013: Arctic Ocean sea ice snow depth evaluation and bias sensitivity in CCSM., The Cryosphere, 7, 1887-1900.

Holland, M.M., E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, J. Kay, and S. Vavrus, 2013: Initial-value predictability of Antarctic sea ice in the Community Climate System Model 3, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/grl.50410.

Jahn, A. and M.M. Holland, 2013: Implications of Arctic sea ice changes for North Atlantic deep convection and the meridional overturning circulation in CCSM4-CMIP5 simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett. 40,1206-1211, doi:0.1002/grl.50183.

Hurrell, J. W., M. M. Holland, S. Ghan, J. -F. Lamarque, D. Lawrence, W. H. Lipscomb, N. Mahowald, D. Marsh, P. Rasch, D. Bader, W. D. Collins, P. R. Gent, J. J. Hack, J. Kiehl, P. Kushner, W. G. Large, S. Marshall, S. Vavrus, and M. Vertenstein, 2013: The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1.


Massonnet, F., T. Fichefet, H. Goosse, C.M. Bitz, G. Philippon-Berthier, M.M. Holland, and P.-Y. Barriat, 2012: Constraining projections of summer Arctic sea ice. The Cryosphere, doi:10.5194/tc-6-1383-2012.

Goldenson, N., S.J. Doherty, C.M. Bitz, M.M. Holland, B. Light, and A.J. Conley, 2012: Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 5341-5388, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-5341-2012.

Kay, J.E., M.M. Holland, C. Bitz, E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, A. Gettelman, A. Conley, and D. Bailey, 2012: The influence of local feedbacks and northward heat transport on the equilibrium Arctic climate response to increased greenhouse gas forcing in coupled climate models. J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00622.1

Stroeve, J.C., V. Kattsov, A.P. Barrett, M.C. Serreze, T. Pavlova, M.M. Holland, and W.N. Meier 2012: Trends in Arctic sea ice etent from CMIP5, CMIP3, and observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2012GL052676.

Stroeve, J., M.C. Serreze, M.M. Holland, J. Kay, J. Maslanik, A.P. Barrett, 2012: The Arctic's rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: A research synthesis. Climatic Change, 110,1005-1027, doi:0.1007/s10584-011-0101-1.

Jenouvrier, S., M. Holland, J. Stroeve, C. Barbraud, H. Weimerskirch, M. Serreze, and H. Caswell, 2012: Effects of climate change on an emperor penguin population: Analysis of coupled demographic and climate models. Global Change Biology, 18(9), 2756-2770, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02744.x.

Vavrus, S.J., M.M. Holland, A. Jahn, D.A. Bailey, and B.A. Blazey, 2012: 21st-Century Arctic climate change in CCSM4. J. Climate, 25(8), 2696-2710, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00220.1

Jahn, A, K. Sterling, M.M. Holland, J.E. Kay, J.A. Maslanik, C.M. Bitz, D.A. Bailey, J. Stroeve, E.C. Hunke, W.H. Lipscomb and D. Pollak, 2012: Late 20th century simulation of Arctic sea ice and ocean properties in CCSM. J. Climate, 25(5), 1431-1452. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00201.1

Landrum, L., M.M. Holland, D. Schneider, and E. Hunke, 2012: Antarctic sea ice variability and change in CCSM4. J. Climate, 25(14), 4817-4838. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00289.1

Bitz, C.M., K.M. Shell, P.R. Gent, D. Bailey, G. Danabasoglu, K.C. Armour, M.M. Holland and J.T. Kiehl, 2012: Climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4. J. Climate, 25, 3053-3070, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00290.1.

Holland, M.M., D.A. Bailey, B.P. Briegleb, B. Light, and E. Hunke, 2012: Improved sea ice shortwave radiation physics in CCSM4: The impact of melt ponds and black carbon. J. Climate, 25 (5), 1413-1430. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00078.1

Miller, G.H., A. Geirsdottir, Y. Zhong, D.J. Larsen, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, M.M. Holland, D.A. Bailey, K.A. Refsnider, S.J. Lehman, J.R. Southon, C. Anderson, H. Bjornsson, T. Thordarson, 2012: Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks. Geophys. Res. Lett, 39 (2), doi:10.1029/2011GL050168.

Bitz, C.M., J.K. Ridley, M.M. Holland, and H. Cattle, 2012: 20th and 21st century Arctic Climate in global climate models. In Arctic Climate Change - The ACSYS Decade and Beyond, Edited by P. Lemke and H.-W. Jacobi. Springer, DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-2027-5_11, p. 405-426.


Fox-Kemper, B., G. Danabasoglu, R. Ferrari, S.M. Griffies, R.W. Hallberg, M.M. Holland, M.E. Maltrud, S. Peacock, and B.L. Samuels, 2011: Parameterization of mixed layer eddies. III: Implementation and impact in global ocean climate simulations. Ocean Modelling, 61-78,doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.09.002..

Gent, P.R., G. Danabasoglu, L.J. Donner, M.M. Holland, E.C. Hunke, S.R. Jayne D.M. Lawrence, R.B. Neale, P.J. Rasch, M. Vertenstein, P.H. Worley, Z.-L. Yang, and M. Zhang, 2011: The Community Climate System Model, version 4. J. Climate, 24 (19), 4973-4991.

Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., C.M. Bitz, and M.M. Holland, 2011: Influence of initial conditions and climate forcing on predicting Arctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18503, doi:10.1029/2011GL048807.

Holland, M.M., and J. Stroeve, 2011: Changing seasonal sea ice predictor relationships in a changing Arctic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18501, doi:10.1029/2011GL049303.

Kay, J.E., M.M. Holland, and A. Jahn, 2011: Inter-annual to multi-decadal Arctic sea ice extent trends in a warming world. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15708, doi:10.1029/2011GL048008.

Zhong, Y., G.H. Miller, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, C.M. Ammann, M.M. Holland D.A. Bailey, D.P. Schneider, and A. Geirsdottir, 2011: Centennial-scale climate change from decadally-paced explosive volcanism: A coupled sea ice-ocean mechanism. Climate Dynamics, DOI:10.1007/s00382-010-0967-z .

Vavrus, S., M.M. Holland, M.M., and D.A. Bailey, 2011: The role of Arctic clouds during intervals of rapid sea ice loss, Climate Dyn, 36, 1475-1489.

Holland, M.M., D.A. Bailey, and S. Vavrus, 2011: Inherent sea ice predictability in the rapidly changing Arctic environment of the Community Climate System Model, version 3, Climate Dyn, 36, 1239-1253, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0792-4.


Holland, M.M., 2010: Arctic sea ice and the potential for abrupt loss, In Climate Dynamics: Why does climate vary? Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 189, edited by D-Z Sun and F. Bryan, pp. 181-192, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Rawlins, M.M., M. Steele, M.M. Holland et al., 2010: Analysis of the Arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and Expectations, J. Climate, 23, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3421.1.

Jahn, A., L.B. Trembaly, R. Newton, M.M. Holland, L.A. Mysak, and I.A. Dmitrenko 2010: A tracer study of the Arctic Ocean's liquid freshwater export variability, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C07015, doi:10.1029/2009JC005873.

Polyak, L., R.B. Alley, J.T. Andrews, J. Brigham-Grette, T.M. Cronin, D.A. Darby, A. Dyke, J.J. Fitzpatrick, S. Funder, M. Holland, A.E. Jennings, G.H. Miller, M. O'Regan, J. Savelle, M. Serreze, K. St. John, J.W.C. White, E. Wolff, 2010: History of sea ice in the Arctic, QSR, 29 (2010), 1757-1778.

Holland, M.M., M.C. Serreze, and J. Stroeve, 2010: The sea ice mass budget of the Arctic and its future change as simulated by coupled climate models, Climate Dynamics, 34 (2), doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0493-4.


Francis, J., D.M. White, J. Cassano, W. Gutowski, L. Hinzman, M. Holland, M. Steele, and C. Vorosmarty, 2009: An Arctic hydrologic system in transition: Feedbacks and impacts on terrestrial, marine, and human life, J. Geophys. Res., 114, G04019, doi:10.1029/2008JG000902.

Finnis, J, J. Cassano, M.M. Holland, M.C. Serreze, and P Uotila, 2009: Synoptically forced hydroclimatology of major Arctic watersheds in general circulation models, Part 1: the Mackenzie River Basin, Intl J. of Clim., 29 (9), 1226-1243.

Finnis, J, J. Cassano, M.M. Holland, and M.C. Serreze, 2009: Synoptically forced hydroclimatology of major Arctic watersheds in general circulation models, Part 2: Eurasian watersheds, Intl J. of Clim., 29 (9), 1244-1261.

Durner, G.M., D.C. Douglas, R.M. Nielsen, S.C. Amstrup, T.L McDonald I. Stirling, M. Mauritzen, E.W. Born, O. Wiig, E. DeWeaver, M.C. Serreze, S.E. Belikov, M.M. Holland, J. Maslanik, J. Aars, D.A. Bailey, and A.E. Derocher, 2009: Predicting the 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models, Ecological Monographs, 79(1), 25-58.

Jenouvrier, A., H. Caswell, C. Barbraud, M.M. Holland, J. Stroeve C.M. Hunter and H. Weimerskirch, 2009: Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.0806638106.

Serreze, M. C., A.P. Barrett, J.C. Stroeve, D.N. Kindig, and M.M. Holland, 2009: The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification, The Cryosphere, 3, 11-19.


Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, B. Tremblay, D.A. Bailey, 2008: The role of natural versus forced change in future rapid summer Arctic ice loss, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 133-150, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Merryfield, W.J., M.M. Holland, and A.H. Monahan, 2008: Multiple equilibria and abrupt transitions in Arctic summer sea ice extent, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 151-174, AGU, Washington, D. C.

DeWeaver, E., E. Hunke, and M.M. Holland, 2008: Sensitivity of Arctic sea ice thickness to inter-model variations in surface energy budget simulation, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 77-90, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Lawrence, D.M., A.G. Slater, R.A. Tomas, M.M. Holland, and C. Deser, 2008: Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11506, doi:10.1029/2008GL033985.

Jochum, M., G. Danabasoglu, M. Holland, Y.-O. Kwon, and W.G. Large, 2008: Ocean viscosity and climate, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C06017, doi:10.1029/2007JC004515.

DeWeaver, E.T., E.C. Hunke, and M.M. Holland, 2008: Comment on "On the reliability of simulated Arctic sea ice in global climate models" by I. Eisenmann, N. Untersteiner, and J.S. Wettlaufer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04501, doi:10.1029/2007GL031325.

Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearhead, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier, and T. Scambos, 2008: Arctic sea ice plummets in 2007, EOS, 89, 2, 13-14.


Holland, M.M., J. Finnis, A. Barrett and M.C. Serreze, 2007: Projected changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:10.1029/2006JG000354.

Finnis, J., M.M. Holland, M.C. Serreze, and J.J. Cassano 2007: Response of Northern Hemisphere Extratropical Cyclone Activity and Associated Precipitation to Climate Change, as Represented by CCSM3. J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:.

White, D., L Hinzman, L Alessa, J Cassano, M Chambers, K Falkner, J Francis W. Gutowski, M. Holland, M Holmes, H Huntington, D Kane, A Kliskey, C Lee J McClelland, B. Peterson, F Staneo, M Steele, R Woodgate, D Yang, K Yoshikawa, T Zhang, 2007: Changes and impacts in the Arctic freshwater system, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:

Stroeve, J., M.M. Holland, W. Meier, T. Scambos, and M.C. Serreze, 2007: Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Faster than Forecast, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L09501, doi: 10.1029/2007GL029703, 2007.

L.B. Tremblay, M.M. Holland, I.V. Gorodetskaya, and G.A. Schmidt, 2007: An Ice-Free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science, Journal of Computing in Science and Engineering, 9, 65-74.

Hunke, E.C. and M.M. Holland, 2007: Global atmospheric forcing data for Arctic ice-ocean modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 12, C04S14, doi:10.1029/2006JC003640.

Serreze, M.C., M.M. Holland, and J. Stroeve, 2007: Perspectives on the Arctic's shrinking sea-ice cover, Science, 315, 1533-1536.


Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, and B. Tremblay, 2006: Future abrupt reductions in the Summer Arctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23503, doi:10.1029/2006GL028024.

Holland, M.M., J. Finnis, and M.C. Serreze, 2006: Simulated Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets in the 20th and 21st centuries, J. Climate, 19, 6221-6242.

Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, E.C. Hunke. W.H. Lipscomb, and J.L. Schramm, 2006: Influence of the sea ice thickness distribution on polar climate in CCSM3, J. Climate, 19, 2398-2414.

Raphael, M. and M.M. Holland, 2006: Twentieth Century Simulation of the Southern Hemisphere in Coupled Models. Part I: Large scale Circulation Variability, Climate Dynamics, 26, 217-228.

Holland, M.M., and M. Raphael, 2006: Twentieth Century Simulation of the Southern Hemisphere in Coupled Models. Part II: Sea ice conditions and variability, Climate Dynamics, 26, 229-245.

Bitz, C.M., P.R. Gent, R.A. Woodgate, M.M. Holland, and R. Lindsay, 2006: The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2. J. Climate, 19, 2437-2450.

Bony, S, R Colman, V.M. Kattsov, R.P. Allan, C.S. Bretherton, J Dufresne, A Hall, S Hallegatte, M.M. Holland, W Ingram, D.A. Randall, B.J. Soden, G Tselioudis, and M.J. Webb, 2006: How Well do we Understand Climate Change Feedback Processes?, J. Climate, 19, 3445-3482.

Hack, J.J., J.M. Caron, S.G. Yeager, K.W. Oleson, M.M. Holland, J.E. Truesdale, and P.J. Rasch, 2006: Simulation of the global hydrological cycle in the CCSM Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3): Mean Features. J. Climate, 19, 2199-2221.


Holland, M.M., C. M. Bitz, and E. Hunke, 2005: Mechanisms forcing an Antarctic dipole in simulated sea ice and surface ocean conditions, J Climate, 18, 2052-2066.

Bitz, C.M, M.M. Holland, E. Hunke, and R.E. Moritz, 2005: Maintenance of the sea-ice edge, J. Climate, 18, 2903-2921.

Goosse, H., and M.M. Holland, 2005: Mechanisms of interdecadal Arctic climate variability in the Community Climate System Model CCSM2, J Climate, 18, 3552-3570.


Holland, M.M. and C.M. Bitz, 2003: Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models, Clim. Dyn, 21,221-232, doi:00382-003-0332-6.

Holland, M.M., 2003: The North Atlantic Oscillation in the CCSM2 and its influence on Arctic climate variability, J. Climate, 16, 2767-2781.

Holland, M.M., 2003: An improved single-column model representation of ocean mixing associated with summertime leads - results from a SHEBA case study, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 10.1029/2002JC001557.


Deser, C., M.M. Holland, G. Reverdin, M.S. Timlin, 2001: Decadal variations in Labrador Sea ice cover and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (C5), 10.1029/2000JC000683.


Bitz, C.M., M.M. Holland, M. Eby, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: Simulating the ice-thickness distribution in a coupled climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 2441-2463.

Holland, M.M, C.M. Bitz, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: The influence of sea ice physics on simulations of climate change, J. Geophys. Res., accepted.

Holland, M.M, C.M. Bitz, M. Eby, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: The role of ice-ocean interactions in the variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, J. Climate, 14, 656-675. PDF File (627 KB)


Holland, M.M, A.J. Brasket and A.J. Weaver, 2000: The impact of rising atmospheric CO2 levels on simulated sea ice induced thermohaline circulation variability, Geophys. Res. Letters, 10, 1519-1522. PDF File (215 KB)


Holland, M.M, and J.A. Curry, 1999: The role of physical processes in determining the interdecadal variability of Central Arctic sea ice, J. Climate, 12, 3319-3330.

Weaver, A.J., C.M. Bitz, A.F. Fanning, and M.M. Holland, 1999: Thermohaline circulation: High latitude phenomena and the difference between the Pacific and Atlantic, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 27, 231-285.


Schramm, J.L., Holland, M.M., Curry, J.A., and E.E. Ebert, 1997: Modeling the thermodynamics of a sea ice thickness distribution 1. Sensitivity to ice thickness resolution, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23,079-23,091.

Holland, M.M., Curry J.A., and J.L. Schramm, 1997: Modeling the thermodynamics of a sea ice thickness distribution 2. Sea ice/ocean interactions, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23,093-23,107.

Holland, M.M., Schramm, J.L., and J.A. Curry, 1997: Thermodynamic feedback processes in a single-column sea-ice-ocean model, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 327-332.

Schramm, J.L., Holland, M.M., and J.A. Curry, 1997: The effects of snowfall on a snow-ice-thickness distribution, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 287-291.

Arbetter, T.E., Curry, J.A., Holland, M.M., and J.A. Maslanik, 1997: Response of sea-ice models to perturbations in surface heat flux, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 193-197.


Holland, W.R., Capotondi, A., and M.M. Holland, 1995: Advances in ocean modeling for climate change research, Reviews of Geophys., Supplement, 1411-1424.

CGD People

Marika Holland, Senior Scientist