Marika Holland

Research Interests

My research interests are related to the role of sea ice and polar regions in the climate system, including ice/ocean/atmosphere feedback mechanisms, high latitude climate variability, and abrupt climate change. I am also interested in coupled climate modeling and the improvement of sea ice models for climate simulations.





Wang, S., D. Bailey, K. Lindsay, J.K. Moore, and M. Holland, 2014: Impact of sea ice on the marine iron cycle and phytoplankton productivity., Biogeosciences, 11, 4713-4731, doi:10.5194/bg-11-4713-2014.

Jenouvrier, S., M. Holland, J. Stroeve, M. Serreze, C. Barbraud, H. Weimerskirch, and H. Caswell, 2014: Projected continent-wide declines of the emperor penguin under climate change, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2280.

Tilmes, S., A. Jahn, J.E. Kay, M.M. Holland, and J.-F. Lamarque, 2014: Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea-ice?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058731.


Blazey, B.A., M.M. Holland, and E.C. Hunke, 2013: Arctic Ocean sea ice snow depth evaluation and bias sensitivity in CCSM., The Cryosphere, 7, 1887-1900.

Holland, M.M., E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, J. Kay, and S. Vavrus, 2013: Initial-value predictability of Antarctic sea ice in the Community Climate System Model 3, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/grl.50410.

Jahn, A. and M.M. Holland, 2013: Implications of Arctic sea ice changes for North Atlantic deep convection and the meridional overturning circulation in CCSM4-CMIP5 simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett. 40,1206-1211, doi:0.1002/grl.50183.

Hurrell, J. W., M. M. Holland, S. Ghan, J. -F. Lamarque, D. Lawrence, W. H. Lipscomb, N. Mahowald, D. Marsh, P. Rasch, D. Bader, W. D. Collins, P. R. Gent, J. J. Hack, J. Kiehl, P. Kushner, W. G. Large, S. Marshall, S. Vavrus, and M. Vertenstein, 2013: The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1.


Massonnet, F., T. Fichefet, H. Goosse, C.M. Bitz, G. Philippon-Berthier, M.M. Holland, and P.-Y. Barriat, 2012: Constraining projections of summer Arctic sea ice. The Cryosphere, doi:10.5194/tc-6-1383-2012.

Goldenson, N., S.J. Doherty, C.M. Bitz, M.M. Holland, B. Light, and A.J. Conley, 2012: Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 5341-5388, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-5341-2012.

Kay, J.E., M.M. Holland, C. Bitz, E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, A. Gettelman, A. Conley, and D. Bailey, 2012: The influence of local feedbacks and northward heat transport on the equilibrium Arctic climate response to increased greenhouse gas forcing in coupled climate models. J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00622.1

Stroeve, J.C., V. Kattsov, A.P. Barrett, M.C. Serreze, T. Pavlova, M.M. Holland, and W.N. Meier 2012: Trends in Arctic sea ice etent from CMIP5, CMIP3, and observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2012GL052676.

Stroeve, J., M.C. Serreze, M.M. Holland, J. Kay, J. Maslanik, A.P. Barrett, 2012: The Arctic's rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: A research synthesis. Climatic Change, 110,1005-1027, doi:0.1007/s10584-011-0101-1.

Jenouvrier, S., M. Holland, J. Stroeve, C. Barbraud, H. Weimerskirch, M. Serreze, and H. Caswell, 2012: Effects of climate change on an emperor penguin population: Analysis of coupled demographic and climate models. Global Change Biology, 18(9), 2756-2770, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02744.x.

Vavrus, S.J., M.M. Holland, A. Jahn, D.A. Bailey, and B.A. Blazey, 2012: 21st-Century Arctic climate change in CCSM4. J. Climate, 25(8), 2696-2710, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00220.1

Jahn, A, K. Sterling, M.M. Holland, J.E. Kay, J.A. Maslanik, C.M. Bitz, D.A. Bailey, J. Stroeve, E.C. Hunke, W.H. Lipscomb and D. Pollak, 2012: Late 20th century simulation of Arctic sea ice and ocean properties in CCSM. J. Climate, 25(5), 1431-1452. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00201.1

Landrum, L., M.M. Holland, D. Schneider, and E. Hunke, 2012: Antarctic sea ice variability and change in CCSM4. J. Climate, 25(14), 4817-4838. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00289.1

Bitz, C.M., K.M. Shell, P.R. Gent, D. Bailey, G. Danabasoglu, K.C. Armour, M.M. Holland and J.T. Kiehl, 2012: Climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4. J. Climate, 25, 3053-3070, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00290.1.

Holland, M.M., D.A. Bailey, B.P. Briegleb, B. Light, and E. Hunke, 2012: Improved sea ice shortwave radiation physics in CCSM4: The impact of melt ponds and black carbon. J. Climate, 25 (5), 1413-1430. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00078.1

Miller, G.H., A. Geirsdottir, Y. Zhong, D.J. Larsen, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, M.M. Holland, D.A. Bailey, K.A. Refsnider, S.J. Lehman, J.R. Southon, C. Anderson, H. Bjornsson, T. Thordarson, 2012: Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks. Geophys. Res. Lett, 39 (2), doi:10.1029/2011GL050168.

Bitz, C.M., J.K. Ridley, M.M. Holland, and H. Cattle, 2012: 20th and 21st century Arctic Climate in global climate models. In Arctic Climate Change - The ACSYS Decade and Beyond, Edited by P. Lemke and H.-W. Jacobi. Springer, DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-2027-5_11, p. 405-426.


Fox-Kemper, B., G. Danabasoglu, R. Ferrari, S.M. Griffies, R.W. Hallberg, M.M. Holland, M.E. Maltrud, S. Peacock, and B.L. Samuels, 2011: Parameterization of mixed layer eddies. III: Implementation and impact in global ocean climate simulations. Ocean Modelling, 61-78,doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.09.002..

Gent, P.R., G. Danabasoglu, L.J. Donner, M.M. Holland, E.C. Hunke, S.R. Jayne D.M. Lawrence, R.B. Neale, P.J. Rasch, M. Vertenstein, P.H. Worley, Z.-L. Yang, and M. Zhang, 2011: The Community Climate System Model, version 4. J. Climate, 24 (19), 4973-4991.

Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., C.M. Bitz, and M.M. Holland, 2011: Influence of initial conditions and climate forcing on predicting Arctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18503, doi:10.1029/2011GL048807.

Holland, M.M., and J. Stroeve, 2011: Changing seasonal sea ice predictor relationships in a changing Arctic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18501, doi:10.1029/2011GL049303.

Kay, J.E., M.M. Holland, and A. Jahn, 2011: Inter-annual to multi-decadal Arctic sea ice extent trends in a warming world. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15708, doi:10.1029/2011GL048008.

Zhong, Y., G.H. Miller, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, C.M. Ammann, M.M. Holland D.A. Bailey, D.P. Schneider, and A. Geirsdottir, 2011: Centennial-scale climate change from decadally-paced explosive volcanism: A coupled sea ice-ocean mechanism. Climate Dynamics, DOI:10.1007/s00382-010-0967-z .

Vavrus, S., M.M. Holland, M.M., and D.A. Bailey, 2011: The role of Arctic clouds during intervals of rapid sea ice loss, Climate Dyn, 36, 1475-1489.

Holland, M.M., D.A. Bailey, and S. Vavrus, 2011: Inherent sea ice predictability in the rapidly changing Arctic environment of the Community Climate System Model, version 3, Climate Dyn, 36, 1239-1253, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0792-4.


Holland, M.M., 2010: Arctic sea ice and the potential for abrupt loss, In Climate Dynamics: Why does climate vary? Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 189, edited by D-Z Sun and F. Bryan, pp. 181-192, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Rawlins, M.M., M. Steele, M.M. Holland et al., 2010: Analysis of the Arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and Expectations, J. Climate, 23, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3421.1.

Jahn, A., L.B. Trembaly, R. Newton, M.M. Holland, L.A. Mysak, and I.A. Dmitrenko 2010: A tracer study of the Arctic Ocean's liquid freshwater export variability, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C07015, doi:10.1029/2009JC005873.

Polyak, L., R.B. Alley, J.T. Andrews, J. Brigham-Grette, T.M. Cronin, D.A. Darby, A. Dyke, J.J. Fitzpatrick, S. Funder, M. Holland, A.E. Jennings, G.H. Miller, M. O'Regan, J. Savelle, M. Serreze, K. St. John, J.W.C. White, E. Wolff, 2010: History of sea ice in the Arctic, QSR, 29 (2010), 1757-1778.

Holland, M.M., M.C. Serreze, and J. Stroeve, 2010: The sea ice mass budget of the Arctic and its future change as simulated by coupled climate models, Climate Dynamics, 34 (2), doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0493-4.


Francis, J., D.M. White, J. Cassano, W. Gutowski, L. Hinzman, M. Holland, M. Steele, and C. Vorosmarty, 2009: An Arctic hydrologic system in transition: Feedbacks and impacts on terrestrial, marine, and human life, J. Geophys. Res., 114, G04019, doi:10.1029/2008JG000902.

Finnis, J, J. Cassano, M.M. Holland, M.C. Serreze, and P Uotila, 2009: Synoptically forced hydroclimatology of major Arctic watersheds in general circulation models, Part 1: the Mackenzie River Basin, Intl J. of Clim., 29 (9), 1226-1243.

Finnis, J, J. Cassano, M.M. Holland, and M.C. Serreze, 2009: Synoptically forced hydroclimatology of major Arctic watersheds in general circulation models, Part 2: Eurasian watersheds, Intl J. of Clim., 29 (9), 1244-1261.

Durner, G.M., D.C. Douglas, R.M. Nielsen, S.C. Amstrup, T.L McDonald I. Stirling, M. Mauritzen, E.W. Born, O. Wiig, E. DeWeaver, M.C. Serreze, S.E. Belikov, M.M. Holland, J. Maslanik, J. Aars, D.A. Bailey, and A.E. Derocher, 2009: Predicting the 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models, Ecological Monographs, 79(1), 25-58.

Jenouvrier, A., H. Caswell, C. Barbraud, M.M. Holland, J. Stroeve C.M. Hunter and H. Weimerskirch, 2009: Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.0806638106.

Serreze, M. C., A.P. Barrett, J.C. Stroeve, D.N. Kindig, and M.M. Holland, 2009: The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification, The Cryosphere, 3, 11-19.


Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, B. Tremblay, D.A. Bailey, 2008: The role of natural versus forced change in future rapid summer Arctic ice loss, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 133-150, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Merryfield, W.J., M.M. Holland, and A.H. Monahan, 2008: Multiple equilibria and abrupt transitions in Arctic summer sea ice extent, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 151-174, AGU, Washington, D. C.

DeWeaver, E., E. Hunke, and M.M. Holland, 2008: Sensitivity of Arctic sea ice thickness to inter-model variations in surface energy budget simulation, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 77-90, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Lawrence, D.M., A.G. Slater, R.A. Tomas, M.M. Holland, and C. Deser, 2008: Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11506, doi:10.1029/2008GL033985.

Jochum, M., G. Danabasoglu, M. Holland, Y.-O. Kwon, and W.G. Large, 2008: Ocean viscosity and climate, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C06017, doi:10.1029/2007JC004515.

DeWeaver, E.T., E.C. Hunke, and M.M. Holland, 2008: Comment on "On the reliability of simulated Arctic sea ice in global climate models" by I. Eisenmann, N. Untersteiner, and J.S. Wettlaufer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04501, doi:10.1029/2007GL031325.

Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearhead, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier, and T. Scambos, 2008: Arctic sea ice plummets in 2007, EOS, 89, 2, 13-14.


Holland, M.M., J. Finnis, A. Barrett and M.C. Serreze, 2007: Projected changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:10.1029/2006JG000354.

Finnis, J., M.M. Holland, M.C. Serreze, and J.J. Cassano 2007: Response of Northern Hemisphere Extratropical Cyclone Activity and Associated Precipitation to Climate Change, as Represented by CCSM3. J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:.

White, D., L Hinzman, L Alessa, J Cassano, M Chambers, K Falkner, J Francis W. Gutowski, M. Holland, M Holmes, H Huntington, D Kane, A Kliskey, C Lee J McClelland, B. Peterson, F Staneo, M Steele, R Woodgate, D Yang, K Yoshikawa, T Zhang, 2007: Changes and impacts in the Arctic freshwater system, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:

Stroeve, J., M.M. Holland, W. Meier, T. Scambos, and M.C. Serreze, 2007: Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Faster than Forecast, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L09501, doi: 10.1029/2007GL029703, 2007.

L.B. Tremblay, M.M. Holland, I.V. Gorodetskaya, and G.A. Schmidt, 2007: An Ice-Free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science, Journal of Computing in Science and Engineering, 9, 65-74.

Hunke, E.C. and M.M. Holland, 2007: Global atmospheric forcing data for Arctic ice-ocean modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 12, C04S14, doi:10.1029/2006JC003640.

Serreze, M.C., M.M. Holland, and J. Stroeve, 2007: Perspectives on the Arctic's shrinking sea-ice cover, Science, 315, 1533-1536.


Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, and B. Tremblay, 2006: Future abrupt reductions in the Summer Arctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23503, doi:10.1029/2006GL028024.

Holland, M.M., J. Finnis, and M.C. Serreze, 2006: Simulated Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets in the 20th and 21st centuries, J. Climate, 19, 6221-6242.

Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, E.C. Hunke. W.H. Lipscomb, and J.L. Schramm, 2006: Influence of the sea ice thickness distribution on polar climate in CCSM3, J. Climate, 19, 2398-2414.

Raphael, M. and M.M. Holland, 2006: Twentieth Century Simulation of the Southern Hemisphere in Coupled Models. Part I: Large scale Circulation Variability, Climate Dynamics, 26, 217-228.

Holland, M.M., and M. Raphael, 2006: Twentieth Century Simulation of the Southern Hemisphere in Coupled Models. Part II: Sea ice conditions and variability, Climate Dynamics, 26, 229-245.

Bitz, C.M., P.R. Gent, R.A. Woodgate, M.M. Holland, and R. Lindsay, 2006: The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2. J. Climate, 19, 2437-2450.

Bony, S, R Colman, V.M. Kattsov, R.P. Allan, C.S. Bretherton, J Dufresne, A Hall, S Hallegatte, M.M. Holland, W Ingram, D.A. Randall, B.J. Soden, G Tselioudis, and M.J. Webb, 2006: How Well do we Understand Climate Change Feedback Processes?, J. Climate, 19, 3445-3482.

Hack, J.J., J.M. Caron, S.G. Yeager, K.W. Oleson, M.M. Holland, J.E. Truesdale, and P.J. Rasch, 2006: Simulation of the global hydrological cycle in the CCSM Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3): Mean Features. J. Climate, 19, 2199-2221.


Holland, M.M., C. M. Bitz, and E. Hunke, 2005: Mechanisms forcing an Antarctic dipole in simulated sea ice and surface ocean conditions, J Climate, 18, 2052-2066.

Bitz, C.M, M.M. Holland, E. Hunke, and R.E. Moritz, 2005: Maintenance of the sea-ice edge, J. Climate, 18, 2903-2921.

Goosse, H., and M.M. Holland, 2005: Mechanisms of interdecadal Arctic climate variability in the Community Climate System Model CCSM2, J Climate, 18, 3552-3570.


Holland, M.M. and C.M. Bitz, 2003: Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models, Clim. Dyn, 21,221-232, doi:00382-003-0332-6.

Holland, M.M., 2003: The North Atlantic Oscillation in the CCSM2 and its influence on Arctic climate variability, J. Climate, 16, 2767-2781.

Holland, M.M., 2003: An improved single-column model representation of ocean mixing associated with summertime leads - results from a SHEBA case study, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 10.1029/2002JC001557.


Deser, C., M.M. Holland, G. Reverdin, M.S. Timlin, 2001: Decadal variations in Labrador Sea ice cover and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (C5), 10.1029/2000JC000683.


Bitz, C.M., M.M. Holland, M. Eby, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: Simulating the ice-thickness distribution in a coupled climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 2441-2463.

Holland, M.M, C.M. Bitz, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: The influence of sea ice physics on simulations of climate change, J. Geophys. Res., accepted.

Holland, M.M, C.M. Bitz, M. Eby, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: The role of ice-ocean interactions in the variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, J. Climate, 14, 656-675. PDF File (627 KB)


Holland, M.M, A.J. Brasket and A.J. Weaver, 2000: The impact of rising atmospheric CO2 levels on simulated sea ice induced thermohaline circulation variability, Geophys. Res. Letters, 10, 1519-1522. PDF File (215 KB)


Holland, M.M, and J.A. Curry, 1999: The role of physical processes in determining the interdecadal variability of Central Arctic sea ice, J. Climate, 12, 3319-3330.

Weaver, A.J., C.M. Bitz, A.F. Fanning, and M.M. Holland, 1999: Thermohaline circulation: High latitude phenomena and the difference between the Pacific and Atlantic, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 27, 231-285.


Schramm, J.L., Holland, M.M., Curry, J.A., and E.E. Ebert, 1997: Modeling the thermodynamics of a sea ice thickness distribution 1. Sensitivity to ice thickness resolution, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23,079-23,091.

Holland, M.M., Curry J.A., and J.L. Schramm, 1997: Modeling the thermodynamics of a sea ice thickness distribution 2. Sea ice/ocean interactions, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23,093-23,107.

Holland, M.M., Schramm, J.L., and J.A. Curry, 1997: Thermodynamic feedback processes in a single-column sea-ice-ocean model, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 327-332.

Schramm, J.L., Holland, M.M., and J.A. Curry, 1997: The effects of snowfall on a snow-ice-thickness distribution, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 287-291.

Arbetter, T.E., Curry, J.A., Holland, M.M., and J.A. Maslanik, 1997: Response of sea-ice models to perturbations in surface heat flux, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 193-197.


Holland, W.R., Capotondi, A., and M.M. Holland, 1995: Advances in ocean modeling for climate change research, Reviews of Geophys., Supplement, 1411-1424.